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Flashcards in Mastering Astronomy study test 1 part 2 Deck (79):
1

Equatorial radius of planets from Greatest to least

Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Earth Venus Mars Mercury Moon Pluto

2

Make a prediction: If the rise in carbon dioxide concentration continues at its current pace, the concentration in the year 2037 will be about __ parts per million.

A. 330
B. 390
C. 430
D. 510

C. 430

3

The average temperature over the past 1000 years has been about 15 degrees Celsius. From the graphs, you can conclude that Earth's average temperature during the past 400,000 years has____.

A. never been as high as it is today
B. varied between about -10C and +4C
C. varied between about 7C and 19C
D. stayed remarkable steady, never varying by more than about 2C

C. varied between about 7C and 19C

4

On the graphs shown, you can identify an ice age by looking for _____.

A. a trough (bottom dip) on the temperature graph
B. a place on the temperature graph where the temperature curve falls steeply
C. a trough (bottom dip) on the carbon dioxide graph
D. a peak on temperature graph

A. a trough (bottom dip) on the temperature graph

5

Notice that the peaks and troughs on the temperature graph occur at about the same times as peaks and troughs on the carbon dioxide graph. what can we infer from this fact alone?

A. there is a correlation between the carbon dioxide concentration and the global average temperature
B. Higher carbon dioxide concentrations cause higher global average temperatures
C. The carbon dioxide concentrations is inversely related to the global average temperature.
D. Higher global average temperatures cause higher carbon dioxide concentrations.

A. there is a correlation between the carbon dioxide concentration and the global average temperature

6

Although the data show only a correlation between the carbon dioxide concentration and the global average temperature, there are other reasons to think that a rise in the carbon dioxide concentration actually causes a rise in the global average temperature. All of the following statements are true. Which statements lend support tot the idea that carbon dioxide is a cause of planetary warming?

A. Models of the greenhouse effect successfully predict the temperatures of Venus and Mars from their atmospheric carbon dioxide amounts.
B. We understand the physical mechanism of the greenhouse effect, through which carbon dioxide can increase a planet's temperature.
C. Isotope ratios in atmospheric carbon dioxide show that much of the carbon dioxide in Earths atmosphere today comes from the burning of fossil fuels.
D. Models of Earths climate that include recent increase in the carbon dioxide concentration match observed temperature increase better than those that do not include it.

A. Models of the greenhouse effect successfully predict the temperatures of Venus and Mars from their atmospheric carbon dioxide amounts.
B. We understand the physical mechanism of the greenhouse effect, through which carbon dioxide can increase a planet's temperature.
D Models of Earths climate that include recent increase in the carbon dioxide concentration match observed temperature increase better than those that do not include it. e.

7

Based on the evidence that atmospheric carbon dioxide is a cause of planetary warming, what aspect of the graphs should most concern us?

A. earths past carbon dioxide concentration rises and falls naturally.
B. earths past temperature rises and falls naturally.
C. the carbon dioxide concentration today is significantly higher than at any time in the past 400,000 years and is rapidly rising.

C. the carbon dioxide concentration today is significantly higher than at any time in the past 400,000 years and is rapidly rising.

8

The energy that warms earths surface comes primarily in the form of

A. infrared light from the sun
B. ultraviolet light from the sun
C. heat from earths interior
D. visible light from the sun
E. heat from the sun

D. visible light from the sun

9

Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide and water vapor, make earth warmer than it would be otherwise because these gases____.

A. absorb infrared light emitted by the surface
B. from clouds that emit thermal radiation
C. reflect visible light coming from the sun
D. absorb visible light coming from the sun

A. absorb infrared light emitted by the surface

10

According to scientists, the naturally occurring greenhouse effect makes earth about 31C warmer than it would be if there were no greenhouse gases in our atmosphere. How do scientists know what earths temperature would be without greenhouse gases?

A. They assume that this temperature would be about the same as the temperature of Mars, which has much less of an atmosphere than Earth
B. Ancient fossil sallow them to infer Earths temperature at a time before our atmosphere contained greenhouse gases
C. They estimate it by averaging guesses made by many individual scientists
D. They calculate this temperature from earths reflectivity and distance from the sun

D. They calculate this temperature from earths reflectivity and distance from the sun

11

All of the following statements are true. which one provides strong observational support for the claim that greenhouse gases make a planet warmer than it would be otherwise?

A. Venus has a higher average temperature than mercury
B. earth has a higher average temperature than mars
C. earth is the only planet with an ozone layer in its atmosphere
D. Mercury is much hotter than the moon.

A. Venus has a higher average temperature than mercury

12

Based solely on an understanding of the greenhouse effect which one of the following statements is true?

A. Humans are causing global warming.
B. global warming poses a grave threat to our future.
C. We should expect an increase in the greenhouse gas concentration to lead to global warming.
D. We do not yet understand the greenhouse effect well enough to make predictions about how it affects our planet.

C. We should expect an increase in the greenhouse gas concentration to lead to global warming.

13

Mass of planets and Sun from Greatest to least

Sun Jupiter Saturn Neptune Uranus Earth Venus Mars Mercury Moon Pluto

14

Which of the following represents a case in which you are not accelerating?

A.Driving in a straight line at 60 miles per hour
B.Going from 0 to 60 miles per hour in 10 seconds
C.Driving 60 miles per hour around a curve
D. Slamming on the brakes to come to a stop at a stop sign

A.Driving in a straight line at 60 miles per hour

15

Suppose you drop a 10 pound
weight and a 5 pound
weight on the Moon, both from the same height at the
same time. What will happen?

A. The 5 pound weight will hit the ground before the 10 pound
weight.
B. Both weights will float freely, since everything is weightless on the Moon.
C. Both will hit the ground at the same time.
D. The 10 pound weight will hit the ground before the 5 pound
weight.

C. Both will hit the ground at the same time.

16

Why are astronauts weightless in the Space Station?

A. Because the Space Station is moving at constant velocity
B. Because there is no gravity in space
C. Because the Space Station is constantly in free fall
around the Earth
D. Because the Space Station is traveling so fast

C. Because the Space Station is constantly in free fall

17

A net force acting on an object will always cause a change in the object's _________.

direction
speed
momentum
mass

momentum

18

Suppose you are in an elevator that is traveling upward at constant speed. How does your weight compare to
your normal weight on the ground?

You are weightless.
It is greater.
It is less.
It is the same.

It is the same.

19

The planets never travel in a straight line as they orbit the Sun. According to Newton's second law of motion, this must mean that _________.

A. a force is acting on the planets
B. The planets will eventually fall into the Sun.
C. The planets have angular momentum.
D. The planets are always accelerating.

A. a force is acting on the planets

20

Suppose that the Sun shrank in size but that its mass remained the same. What would happen to the orbit of the Earth?

A. The size of Earth's orbit would shrink, and it would take less than one year to orbit the Sun.
B. Earth's orbit would expand, and it would take more than one year to orbit the Sun.
C. Earth would change from a bound orbit to an unbound orbit and fly off into interstellar space.
D. Earth's orbit would be unaffected.

D. Earth's orbit would be unaffected.

21

Imagine another solar system, with a star of the same mass as the Sun. Suppose a planet with a mass twice that of Earth (2MEarth) orbits at a distance of 1 AU from the star. What is the orbital period of this planet?

1 year

22

Imagine another solar system, with a star more massive than the Sun. Suppose a planet with the same mass as Earth orbits at a distance of 1 AU from the star. How would the planet's year (orbital period) compare to Earth's year?

The planet's year would be shorter than Earth's.

23

Newton showed that Kepler's laws are _________.

natural consequences of the law of universal gravitation

24

Each of the following lists two facts. Which pair of facts can be used with Newton's version of Kepler's third law to determine the mass of the Sun?

Earth is 150 million km from the Sun and orbits the Sun in one year.

25

When space probe Voyager 2 passed by Saturn, its speed increased (but not due to firing its engines). What must have happened?

Saturn must have lost a very tiny bit of its orbital energy.

26

Which of the following best describes the origin of ocean tides on Earth?

Tides are caused by the difference in the force of gravity exerted by the Moon across the sphere of the Earth.

27

At which lunar phase(s) are tides most pronounced (for example, the highest high tides)?

At which lunar phase(s) are tides most pronounced (for example, the highest high tides)? Both new and full moons

28

Which of the following best explains why the Moon's orbital period and rotation period are the same?

The Moon once rotated faster, but tidal friction slowed the rotation period until it matched the orbital
period.

29

Suppose the Moon's orbit were unchanged, but it rotated faster (meaning it did not have synchronous rotation).
Which of the following would be true?

We would no longer always see nearly the same face of the Moon.

30

Which of the following statements about the force attracting these two galaxies is true? (Galaxys colliding)

It is the same force that causes an apple to fall to the ground.

31

Suppose you are aboard a rocket that is orbiting Earth in the low, circular orbit shown. If you want to escape from
Earth and head to the Moon or Mars along the "escape" path shown, what do you need to do?

Fire the rocket engine in your direction of travel, so that you gain speed.

32

The difference between speed and velocity is that _________.

velocity also includes a direction

33

The acceleration of gravity on Earth is approximately 10 m/s2 (more precisely, 9.8 m/s2). If you drop a rock
from a tall building, about how fast will it be falling after 3 seconds?

30 m/s

34

Momentum is defined as _________.

mass times velocity

35

Suppose you lived on the Moon. Which of the following would be true?

Your weight would be less than your weight on Earth, but your mass would be the same as it is on Earth.

36

In which of the following cases would you feel weightless?

While falling from a roof

37

Which of the following statements is not one of Newton's Laws of Motion?

What goes up must come down.

38

Newton's Second Law of Motion tells us that the net force applied to an object equals its _________.

mass times acceleration

39

According to the universal law of gravitation, if you triple the distance between two objects, then the gravitational force between them _________.

decreases by a factor of 9

40

What is the difference between a bound orbit and an unbound orbit around the Sun?

An object on a bound orbit follows the same path around the Sun over and over, while an object on
an unbound orbit approaches the Sun just once and then never returns.

41

The allowed shapes for the orbits of objects responding only to the force of gravity are ______.

ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas

42

Why is Newton's version of Kepler's third law so useful to astronomers?

It can be used to determine the masses of many distant objects.

43

Which statement must be true in order for a rocket to travel from Earth to another planet?

It must attain escape velocity from Earth.

44

Right now, where would you find a tidal bulge on Earth?

On the portion of Earth facing directly toward the Moon and on the portion of Earth facing directly
away from the Moon

45

The sun rises lowest (its maximum altitude during the day is smallest) in our sky (assume mid US latitude) on

December 21

46

On the vernal equinox, the sun sets directly west. Where will the sun set two weeks later?

North of west

47

The sun rises highest ( its maximum altitude during the day is greatest) in our sky (assume mid US latitude) on

June 21

48

Mercury moons

none

49

Venus moons

none

50

Earth moons

1

51

Mars moons

2

52

Jupiter moons

67

53

Saturn moons

62

54

Uranus moons

27

55

Neptune moons

14

56

Pluto moons

5

57

Surface of Venus Characteristics

Venus: has very few impact craters with a diameter less than 25 km, includes the continent sized regions ishtar terra and aphrodite terra.

58

Surface of earth characteristics

Has many craters with a diameter about 10 meters, has plate tectonics

59

Venus and earth characteristics

Has evidence of past volcanic activity, surface includes mountains and rolling plains

60

Moon and Venus Similiarties

Venus: has surface features called coronae
Moon: has an abundance of craters
Both: lack plate tectonics, has smooth regions of lava type rock

61

_____ are a common volcanic feature on Venus. The Hawaiian islands are a good example of this feature on earth.

Shield Volcanoes

62

_____ on Venus are analogous to riles on the moon.

Lava channels

63

____ are found both on Venus and Earth, and are the result of up welling magma pushing up on the surface

Lava domes

64

Assuming that features you see on Mars are similar to features found on Earth, what would a casual inspection of the interactive photo of Mars lead you to suspect about water on Mars?

Surface water only exists as frozen ice.

65

Which of the following Mars surface features provides dramatic evidence that volcanism has played a role in shaping the surface of Mars?

Olympus Mons

66

When you zoom in on the section labeled “Southern Highlands,” which geologic processes are most clearly evident?

impact cratering and erosion

67

Rank these planets from left to right based on the
atmospheric pressure at the surface, from highest to lowest. (Not to scale.)

Venus, Earth, Mars, Mercury

68

Rank these planets from left to right based on the total
amount of gas in their atmospheres, from most to least.

Venus, Earth, Mars, Mercury

69

Rank these wavelengths from left to right based on the amount of each that is emitted (as thermal radiation) by Earth’s surface, from greatest to least.

Greatest: Infrared
Least: Xray, Visible, Ultraviolet

70

Rank these planets from left to right based on the total amount of infrared absorbing greenhouse gases in their atmospheres, from greatest to least.

Venus, Earth, Mars, Mercury

71

Rank the planets from left to right based on the strength
of the greenhouse effect occurring at their surfaces, from strongest to weakest.

Venus, Earth, Mars, Mercury

72

Rank the planets from left to right based on the amount
by which the greenhouse effect increases their surface temperatures, compared to what their temperatures would be without the greenhouse effect, from largest to smallest increase.

Venus, Earth, Mars, Mercury

73

Listed following are characteristics of the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars. Match each atmospheric characteristic to the appropriate planet.

Venus: Sulfuric acid clouds, almost no surface winds, runaway greenhouse effect
Earth: Ultraviolet-absorbing stratosphere, atmosphere composed of primarily nitrogen
Mars: global dust storms, extremely low density atmosphere.

74

Assume that all the planets started out equally hot inside. Rank the planets based on their expected cooling rates, from fastest cooling to slowest cooling.

Mercury, Mars, Venus, Earth

75

Rank the planets based on the amount of time the surface of the planet has had a moderate to high level of volcanic/tectonic activity, from longest to shortest.

Earth, Mars, Mercury

76

Match Geographic feature to appropriate geologic process. Volcanism

Mars olympus mons, big island of hawaii, smooth surfaces of the lunar maria

77

Match Geographic feature to appropriate geologic process. Impact cratering

old surface features of the lunar highlands

78

Match Geographic feature to appropriate geologic process. Erosion

Earths grand canyon

79

Match Geographic feature to appropriate geologic process. Tectonics

Current locations of earths continents, mercury's many long tall cliffs, mars vallys marineries