Chapter 17- Sense Organs: The Eye and The Ear Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17- Sense Organs: The Eye and The Ear Deck (175)
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1

Normal adjustment of the eye to focus on objects from far to near. The ciliary body adjusts the lens and the pupil constricts. When the eye focuses from near to far, the ciliary body flattens the lens and the pupil dilates

accomodation

2

area behind the cornea and in front of the lens and iris. It contains aqueous humor.

anterior chamber

3

fluid produced by the ciliary body and found in the anterior chamber. A humor is any body fluid, including blood and lymph.

aqueous humor

4

consisting of two surfaces that are rounded, elevated, and curved evenly, like part of a sphere. The lens of the eye is a biconvex body.

biconvex

5

middle, vascular layer of the eye, between the retina and the sclera

choroid

6

structure surrounding the lens that connects the choroid and iris. It secretes aqueous humor.

ciliary body

7

photoreceptor cell in the retina that transforms light energy into a nerve impulse. Cones are responsible for color and central vision.

cone

8

delecate membrane lining the undersurface of the eyelids and covering the anterior eyeball.

conjunctiva

9

fibrous transparent laer of clear tissue that extends over the anterior portion of the eyeball.

cornea

10

tiny pit or depression in the retina that is the region of clearest vision

fovea centralis

11

posterior, inner part of the eye

fundus of the eye

12

pigmented layer that opens and clsoes to allow more or less light into the eye.

iris

13

central opening of the iris

pupil

14

transparent, biconvex body behind the pupil of the eye. Bends light rays to bring them into focus on the retina

lens

15

yellowish region on the retina lateral to and slightly below the optic disc; contains the fovea centralis

macula

16

point at which optic nerve fibers cross in the brain

optic chiasm

17

region at the back of the eye where the optic nerve meets the retina. It's a blind spot of the eye because it contains only nerve fibers, no rods and cones and thus is insensitive to light

optic disc

18

cranial nerve carrying impulses from the retina to the brain

optic nerve

19

central opening of the eye surrounded by the irus through which light rays pass. appears dark

pupil

20

bending of light rays by the cornea, lens, and fluids of the eye to bring the rays into focus on the retina.

refraction

21

light sensitive nerve cell layer of the eye containing photoreceptor cells (rods and cones)

retina

22

photoreceptor cell of the retina essential for vision in dim light and for peripheral vision

rod

23

tough white outer coat of the eyeball

sclera

24

relay center of the brain. optic nerve fibers pass through the thalamus on their way to the cerebral cortex

thalamus

25

soft, jelly-like material behind the lens in the vitreous chamber; helps maintain the shape of the eyeball

vitreous humor

26

water

aqueo

27

eyelid

blepharo / palpebro

28

inflammation of the eyelid causing redness, crusting, and swelling along lid margins

blepharitis

29

conjunctiva

conjunctivo

30

pinkeye: blood vessels dilate from allergens like pollen, bacterial infection, or virus

allergic, bacterial, viral CONJUNCTIVITIS

31

pupil

coro / pupillo

32

indication of enurologic injury or disease

anisocoria

33

cornea

corneo / kerato

34

scratch of the eye

corneal abrasion

35

ciliary body or other muscle of the eye

cyclo

36

cycloplegic

paralysis of the ciliary muscles of the eye so unable to accomodate

37

tears, tear duct

dacryo / lacrimo

38

inflammation of the tear duct

dacryoadenitis

39

iris

iro / irido

40

pain, sensitivity to light, lacrimation

iritis

41

pertaining to the iris

iridic

42

a portion of the iris is removed to improve drainage of aqueous humor or to extract a foreign body

iridectomy

43

inflammation of the cornea

keratitis

44

to produce tear

lacrimation

45

pertaining to tears

lacrimal

46

eye

oculo / ophthalmo

47

intraocular

within the eye

48

medical doctor who specializes in disorders of the eye

ophthalmologist

49

pertaining to the eye

ophthalmic

50

paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles

ophthalmoplegia

51

eye, vision

opto/ optico

52

pertaining to vision

optic

53

nonmedical professional who can examine eyes to determine vision problems and prescribe lenses, doctor of optometry (OD)

optometrist

54

nonmedical professional who grinds lenses and fits glasses but does not prescribe lenses

optician

55

pertaining to the eyelid

palpebral

56

increased intracrainial pressure and hyperemia in the region of the optic disc

papilledema

57

optic disc; nipple-like

papillo

58

lens of the eye

phaco / phako

59

technique of cataract extraction using ultrasonic vibrations to fragment the lens and aspirate it from the eye

phacoemulsification

60

pupil

pupillo

61

pertaining to the pupil

pupillary

62

retina

retino

63

genetic disorder in which a pigmented scar forms on the retina that destroys retinal rods. Decreased vision and night blindness occur

retinitis

64

night blindness

nyctalopia

65

lesions such as narrowing of arterioles, microaneurysms, hemorrhages, and exudates are found on examination of the fundus

hypertensive retinopathy

66

white hard part of the eye

sclero

67

pertaining to the cornea and the sclera

corneoscleral

68

inflammation of the sclera

scleritis

69

vascular layer of the eye consisting of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid

uveo

70

inflammation of the iris, ciliary body, and choroid

eveitis

71

glassy

vitreo

72

dull, dim

amblyo

73

unilateral or bilateral reduction of visual activity. Early in life before the age of 7. Ocular misalignment such as with strabismus, uncorrected errors of refraction, or other eye disorders can lead to this

amblyopia

74

double

diplo

75

double vision strabismus in an adult

diplopia

76

gray

glauco

77

mass or collection of aqueous humor. Causes a dull gray-green color. increased intraocular pressure results in damage to the retina and optic nerve with loss of vision

glaucoma

78

smaller, less

mio

79

contraction of the pupil

miosis

80

drug that causes the pupil to contract

miotic

81

widen, enlarge

mydro

82

enlargement of pupils.

mydriasis

83

night

nycto

84

night blindness

nyctalopia

85

light

photo

86

sensitivity to light

photophobia

87

old age

presbyo

88

impairment of the vision as a result of old age. with increasing age elasticity of the ciliary body impairs its ability to adjust the lens for accommodation. convex lens used to refract because lens of the eye cannot become fat.

presbyopia

89

darkness

scoto

90

area of decreased vision surrounded by an area of normal vision.

scotoma

91

dry

xero

92

dry eye

xerophthalmia

93

vision

opia / opsia

94

eyeball is too short or refractive power of the lens is too weak. image forms behind the retina. fixed with a convex lens. Can see far

hyperopia / hypermetropia

95

absence of vision in half of the visual field. Stroke victims. Loss in left or right visual field of both eyes.

hemianopsia

96

to turn

tropia

97

inward turning of the eye (cross-eyed)

esotropia

98

outword turning of an eye (wall-eyed)

exotropia

99

defect in eye muscles so that both eyes cannot be focused on the same point at the same time, abnormal deviation of the eye

strabismus

100

defective curvature of the cornea or lense of the eye

astigmatism

101

eyeball is too long or the refractive power of the lens is so strong that light rays do not properly focus on the retina. image is perceived as blurred because light rays are focused in the front of the retina. concave glasses correct this condition.

myopia

102

clouding of the lens causing decreased vision. surgical removal of the lens and implantation of the artificial lens behind the iris is treatment.

cataract

103

small, hard, cystic mass (granuloma) on the eyelid. formed as a result of chronic inflammation of a sebaceous gland along the margin of the eyelid. Require incision and drainage.

Chalazion

104

retinal effects of diabetes mellitus include microaneurysms, hemorrhages, dilation of retinal veins, and neovascularization

diabetic retinopathy

105

formation of new blood vessels from the retina

neovascularization

106

fluid leaking from blood vessels into the retina and vision is blurred

macular edema

107

fluid leaking from the blood appear in the retina as yellow-white spots

exudates

108

gradual loss of peripheral vision, headaches, blurred vision, and halos around bright lights

glaucoma

109

laser therapy for chronic open-angle glaucoma causes scarring in the drainage angle which improves aqueous humor outflow and reduces pressure

trabeculoplasty

110

blockage, inflammation, and infection of a nasolacrimal duct and lacrimal sac, causing redness and swelling in the region between the nose and the lower lid

dacryocystitis

111

outward sagging and eversion of the eyelid leading to improper lacrimation and corneal drying and ulceration

ectoprion

112

inversion of the eyelid, causing the lashes to rub against the eye, corneal abrasion may result

endoprion

113

infection of a sebaceous gland producing a small, superficial white nodule along lid margin.

hordeolum (stye)

114

drooping of upper lid margin as a result of neuromuscular problems or trauma

ptosis

115

raised yellowish plaque on eyelid caused by a lipid disorder

xanthelasma

116

localized purulent inflammatory staphylococcal infection of a sebaceous gland in the eyelid

hordeolum (stye)

117

progressive damage to the macula of the retina

macular degeneration

118

leading cause of blindness in the elderly.

macular degeneration

119

marked by atrophy and degeration of retinal cells and deposits of clumps of extracellular debris

dry form of MD

120

results from development of new and leaky blood vessels close to the macula

wet form of MD

121

repetitive rhythmic movements of one or both eyes. brain tumors or diseases of the inner ear may cause it. normal in newborns

nystagmus

122

two layers of retina detach from eachother. phtopsia, floaters, shadow/ curtain falling, treat with photocoagulation and cryotherapy, or scleral buckel, pneumatic therapy

retinal detatchment

123

upward deviation of one eye

hypertropia

124

downward deviation of one eye

hypotropia

125

partial loss of vision or lazy eye, reversible until retina is fully developed at 7-10

strabismus?

126

IV injection of fluorescein followed by serial photographs of the retina through dialated pupils

fluorescein angiography

127

visual examination of the interior of the eye

ophthalmoscopy

128

examination of anterior ocular structures under microscopic magnification

slit lap microscopy

129

measures intraocular pressure to detect glaucoma

tonometry

130

clarity of vision is assessed via ____ chart at 20 feet away

visual acuity test, snellen chart

131

measurement of the area peripheral and central within which objects are seen when the eyes are fixed looking streight without movement of the head

visual field test

132

removal of the entire eyeball

enucleation

133

surgical repair of the cornea / corneal transplant

keratoplasty

134

intense, precisely focused light beam (argon laser) creates an inflammatory reaction that seals retinal tears and leaky retinal blood vessels

laser photocoagulation

135

use if excimer laser to correct errors of refraction (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism(

LASIK

136

LASIK stands for

laser in situ keratomileusis

137

ultrasonic vibrations break up the lens which is then aspirated through the ultrasonic probe, surgery for cataract removal

photoemulsification

138

suture of a silicon band to the sclera over a detached portion of the retina

scleral buckle

139

removal of the vitreous humor

vitrectomy

140

channel from pinna --> eardrum

auditory canal

141

auditory canal

auditory meatus

142

carry impulses from the inner ear --> brain. these fibers compose the vestibulocochlear nerve (8)

auditory nerve fibers

143

channel between the middle ear and the nasopharynx, eustation tube

auditory tube

144

flap of the ear, protruding part of the external ear

auricle, pinna

145

waxy substance secreted by the external ear

cerumen, earwax

146

snail shaped spirally wound tube in the inner ear containing hearing sensitive receptor cells

cochlea

147

fluid within the labrynth of the inner ear

endolymph

148

auditory tube

eustation tube

149

second ossicle of the middle ear, anvil

incus

150

maze-like series of canals of the inner ear. including cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals

labyrinth

151

first ossicle of the middle ear, hammer

malleus

152

sensitive auditory receptor area found in the cochlea of the inner ear

organ of corti

153

small bone of the ear; including malleus, incus, and stapes

ossicle

154

membrane between the middle and inner ear

oval window

155

fluid contained in the labyringth of the inner ear

perilymph

156

passages in the inner ear associated with maintaining equilibrium

semicircular canals

157

third ossicle of the middle ear, stirrup

stapes

158

membrane between the outer and middle ear, eardrum

tympanic membrane

159

central cavity of the labyringth connecting the semicircular canals and cochlea. contains two strutures (saccule and utricle) to maintain equillibrium

vestibule

160

hearing

acouso

161

sense of hearing

audio, audito

162

record produced when and individual's hearing is tested by audiometry

audiogram

163

healthcare professional specializing in the evalulation and rehabilitation of people with hearing loss

audiologist

164

ear

auro, auriculo

165

cochlea

cochleo

166

mastoid process

mastoido

167

cased by bacterial infection, spreads from the middle ear to temporal bone

mastoiditis

168

eardrum, tympanic membrane

myringo, tympano

169

ossicle

ossiculo

170

ear

oto

171

medical doctor who sepcializes in ear nose and throat

otolaryngologist

172

eustation tube, auditory tube

salpingo

173

stapes

stapedo

174

removal of the stapes and insertino of prosthetic devise to connect incus to the oval window

stapedectomy

175

surgical reconstruction of the bones of the middle ear with reconnection of the eardrum to the oval window

tympanoplasty