Chapter 18 - Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 - Endocrine System Deck (88)
1

adrenal cortex

outer section of each adrenal gland

2

adrenal medulla

inner section of each adrenal gland

3

ovaries

located in lower abdomen of female; produces eggs, estrogen/progesterone secretion

4

pancreas

located behind stomach; islet cells secrete hormones from the pancreas

5

parathyroid glands

4 small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland

6

pituitary gland

located at base of brain in sella turcica; composed of anterior and posterior lobes

7

testes

2 glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male

8

thyroid gland

located in the neck on either side of trachea

9

adrenaline (epinephrine)

secreted by adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure, dilates airways

10

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary gland; stimulates adrenal cortex

11

aldosterone

secreted by adrenal cortex; increases salt reabsorption

12

androgen

male hormone

13

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

increases reabsorption of water by the kidney

14

calcitonin

decreases blood calcium levels

15

cortisol

increases blood sugar

16

estradiol

estrogen secreted by the ovaries

17

estrogen

female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex

18

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

stimulates hormone secretion and egg production by the ovaries and sperm production by the testes

19

glucagon

increases blood sugar by conversion of glycogen to sugar

20

growth hormone (GH); somatotropin

stimulates growth of bones and soft tissue

21

insulin

helps glucose to pass into cells and it promotes the conversion of glucose to glycogen

22

luteinizing hormone (LH)

stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone secretion in males

23

norepinephrine

increases heart rate and blood pressure

24

oxytocin (OT)

stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor and childbirth

25

parathormone (PTH)

increases blood calcium

26

progesterone

prepares uterus for pregnancy

27

prolactin (PRL)

promotes milk secretion

28

somatotropin

growth hormone

29

testosterone

male hormone secreted by the testes

30

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); thyrotropin

secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; TSH acts on the thryoid gland to promote its functioning

31

thyroxine (T4)

T4 increases metabolism in cells

32

triiodothyronine (T3)

increases metabolism in cells

33

vasopressin

increases water reabsorption and raises blood pressure

34

catecholamines

hormones derived from an amino acid and secreted by the adrenal medulla

35

corticosteroids

hormones produced by the adrenal cortex

36

electrolyte

mineral salt found in blood and tissues and necessary for proper functioning of cells

37

glucocorticoid

regulates glucose, fat, and protein metabolism

38

homeostasis

tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment

39

hormone

substance secreted by an endocrine gland that travels through the blood to a distant organ or gland where it influences the structure or function of that organ or gland

40

hypothalamus

region of the brain lying below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland

41

mineralocorticoid

secreted by the adrenal cortex to regulate mineral salts and water balance in the body

42

receptor

cellular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be excited

43

sella turcica

cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland

44

sex hormones

steroids produced by adrenal cortex to influence male an female sex characteristics

45

steroid

complex substance related to fats and of which many hormones are made

46

sympathomimetic

pertaining to mimicking the effect of the sympathetic nervous system

47

target tissue

cells of an organ that are affected or stimulated by specific hormones

48

aden/o

gland

49

adrenal/o

adrenal gland

50

gonad/o

sex glands

51

acr/o

extremities

52

pancreat/o

pancreas

53

parathyroid/o

parathyroid gland

54

pituitar/o

pituitary gland; hypophysis

55

thyr/o
thyroid/o

thyroid gland

56

andr/o

male

57

calc/o
calci/o

calcium

58

cortic/o

cortex, outer region

59

crin/o

secrete

60

dips/o

thirst

61

estr/o

female

62

gluc/o
glyc/o

sugar

63

home/o

sameness

64

hormon/o

hormone

65

kal/i

potassium

66

lact/o

milk

67

myx/o

mucus

68

natr/o

sodium

69

phys/o

growing

70

somat/o

body

71

ster/o

solid structure

72

toc/o

childbirth

73

toxic/o

poison

74

ur/o

urine

75

-agon

assemble, gather

76

-emia

blood condition

77

-in
-ine

substance

78

-tropin

stimulating the function of

79

-uria

urine condition

80

-megaly

enlargement

81

eu-

good, normal

82

hyper-

excessive

83

hypo-

deficient

84

oxy-

rapid, sharp, acid

85

pan-

all

86

poly-

many or increased

87

tetra-

four

88

tri-

three