Chapter 2 - Study Section Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Study Section Deck (57)
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Anabolism

Process of building up large proteins from smaller proteins

1

Catabolism

A process where nutrients are broken down and energy is released

2

Cell membrane

The structure that surrounds and protects the cell

3

Chromosomes

Rod shaped structures in the nucleus that contains DNA also known as genes

4

Cytoplasm

All the material that is outside the nucleus and contained in the cell membrane

5

DNA

Chemical found within each chromosome-directs the activities of the cell

6

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Canals within the cytoplasm - large proteins made from smaller proteins

7

Genes

Regions of DNA within each chromosome

8

Karyotype

Pictures of chromosomes in the nucleus - arranged in numerical order to determine their number and structure

9

Metabolism

Total of the chemical processes in the cell - includes catabolism and anabolism

10

Mitochondria

Structures in the cytoplasm that provide the main source of energy - catabolism occurs here

11

Nucleus

Control center (brain) of the cell

12

Adipose tissue

Collections of fat cells

13

Cartilage

Flexible connective tissue attached to the bones at joints

14

Epithelial cells

Skin cells that cover the outside of the body and line the internal parts of organs

15

Histologist

Specialist in the study of tissues

16

Larynx

Voice box; upper part of the trachea

Larynx=Loud

17

Pharynx

Throat - passageway for food

Pharynx for pudding

18

Pituitary gland

Endocrine gland at base of brain

19

Thyroid gland

Endocrine gland that surrounds trachea in neck

20

Trachea

Windpipe

21

Ureter

One of two tubes that lead from a kidney to the bladder

2 e's for 2 ureters

22

Urethra

Tube from the bladder to the outside of the body

23

Uterus

The womb - holds the fetus

24

Viscera

Internal organs

25

Cervical

Neck region C1-C7

26

Thoracic

Chest region T1-T12

27

Lumbar

Loin (waist) region L1-L5

28

Sacral

Region of the sacrum S1-S5

29

Coccygeal

Region of the coccyx (tailbone)

30

Hypochondriac

Right and left upper regions beneathe the ribs

31

Epigastric

Middle upper region above the stomach

32

Lumbar

Right and left middle regions near the waist

33

Umbilical

Central region near the navel

34

Inguinal

Right and left lower regions near the groin AKA iliac

35

Hypogastric

Middle lower region below the umbilical region

36

Vertebra

Single backbone

37

Vertebrae

Backbones

38

Spinal column

Bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity

39

Spinal cord

Nervous tissue with spinal cavity

40

Disk, disc

Pad of cartilage between vertebrae

41

Ventral, anterior

Pertaining to the front

42

Dorsal, posterior

Pertaining to the back

43

Deep

Away from the surface

44

Superficial

On the surface

45

Proximal

Near the point of attachment to the trunk or the beginning of a structure

46

Distal

Far from point of attachment to the trunk or far from beginning of a structure

47

Inferior

Below another structure

48

Superior

Above another structure

49

Medial

Pertaining of the middle or near the middle plane of the body

50

Lateral

Pertaining to the side

51

Supine

Lying on the back

52

Prone

Lying on the belly

53

Frontal, coronal plane

Vertical plane dividing body into anterior and posteriors portions

54

Inferior, caudal

Below another structure; pertaining to lower portion of the body

55

Sagittal, lateral plane

Vertical plane dividing the body into right and left sides

56

Transverse, axial plane

Horizontal plane dividing body into upper and lower portions