Chapter 18 Glossary- Cardiac Emergencies Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 Glossary- Cardiac Emergencies Deck (27)
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1

acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

a blanket term used to represent any symptoms related to lack of oxygen (ischemia) in the heart muscle. also called cardiac compromise.

2

acute myocardial infarction (AMI)

the condition in which a portion of the myocardium does as a result of oxygen starvation; often called a heart attack by laypersons.

3

agonal breathing

irregular, gasping breaths that precede apnea and death.

4

aneurysm

the dilation, or ballooning, of a weakened section of the wall of an artery.

5

angina pectoris

pain in the chest occurring when blood supply to the heart is reduced and a portion of the heart muscle is not receiving enough oxygen.

6

apnea

no breathing

7

asystole

a condition in which the heart has ceased generating electrical impulses. commonly called flatline.

8

bradycardia

when the heart rate is slow, usually less than 60 bpm

9

cardiac compromise

see acute coronary syndrome

10

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

actions taken to revive a person by keeping the person's heart and lungs working.

11

cardiovascular system

the heart and the blood vessels

12

congestive heart failure (CHF)

the failure of the heart to pump efficiently, leading to excessive blood or fluids in the lungs, the body, or both.

13

coronary artery disease (CAD)

diseases that affect the arteries of the heart.

14

defibrillation

delivery of an elctrical shock to stop the fibrillation of the heart muscles and restore a normal heart rhythm.

15

dyspnea

shortness of breath; labored or difficult breathing.

16

dysrhythmia

a disturbance in heart rate and rhythm.

17

edema

swelling resulting from a buildup of fluid in the tissues.

18

embolism

blockage of a vessel by a clot or foreign material brought to the site by the blood current.

19

nutroglycerin

a medication that dilated the blood vessels.

20

occlusion

blockage, as of an artery, by fatty deposits.

21

pedal edema

accumulation of fluid in the lungs.

22

pulseless electrical activity (PEA)

a condition in which the heart's electrical rhythm remains relatively normal, yet the mechanical pumping activity fails to follow the electrical activity, causing cardiac arrest.

23

sudden death

a cardiac arrest that occurs within 2 hours of the onset of symptoms. the patient may have no prior symptoms of coronary artery disease.

24

tachycardia

when the heart rate is fast, more than 100 bpm

25

thrombus

a clot formed of blood and plaque attached to the inner wall of an artery or vein.

26

ventricular fibrillation

a condition in which the heart's electrical impulses are disorganized, preventing the heart muscle from contracting normally.

27

ventricular tachycardia

a condition in which the heartbeat is quite rapid; if rapid enough, ventricular tachycardia will not allow the heart's chambers to fill with enough blood between beats to produce blood flow sufficient to meet the body's needs.