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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (44):
1

Anecdotal evidence

Personal stories about specific incidents and experiences. Tends to be unrepresentative, inaccurate and unreliable.

2

Case study

An in-depth investigation of an individual subject.

3

Confounding of variables

A condition that exists whenever two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their independent effects.

4

Control group

Subjects in a study who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group.`

5

Correlation

The extent to which two variables are related to each other.

6

Correlation coefficient

A numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables.

7

Data collection techniques

Procedures for making empirical observations and measurements.

8

Dependent variable

In an experiment, the variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable.

9

Descriptive statistics

Statistics that are used to organize and summarize data.

10

Double-blind procedure

A research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups.

11

Experiment

A research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result.

12

Experimental group

The subjects in a study who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable.

13

Experimenter bias

A phenomenon that occurs when a researcher’s expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained.

14

Extraneous variables

Any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study.

15

Hypothesis

A tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.

16

Independent variable

In an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable.

17

Inferential statistics

Statistics that are used to interpret data and draw conclusions.

18

Journal

A periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry.
Abstract - concise summary of empirical obs.
Introduction - overview of problem study, relevant theories & previous research
Method - thorough desc of research method, subjects, procedures, data
Results - data obtained, no inferences
Discussion - conclusions, interpretations, evaluations
References

19

Mean

The arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution.

20

Median

The score that falls exactly in the centre of a distribution of scores.

21

Mode

The score that occurs most frequently in a distribution.

22

Naturalistic observation

A descriptive research method in which the researcher engages in careful, usually prolonged, observation of behaviour without intervening directly with the subjects.

23

Operational definition

A definition that describes the actions or operations that will be made to measure or control a variable.

24

Participants

The persons or animals whose behaviour is systematically observed in a study.

25

Placebo effects

The fact that subjects’ expectations can lead them to experience some change even though they receive an empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment.

26

Population

The larger collection of animals or people from which a sample is drawn and that researchers want to generalize about.

27

Random assignment

The constitution of groups in a study such that all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition.

28

Replication

The repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated.

29

Research methods

Differing approaches to the manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies.

30

Response set

A tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions.

31

Sample

The collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study.

32

Sampling bias

A problem that occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn.

33

Social desirability bias

A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.

34

Standard deviation

An index of the amount of variability in a set of data.

35

Statistical significance

The condition that exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low.

36

Statistics

The use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data. See also Descriptive statistics, Inferential statistics.

37

Subjects

The persons or animals whose behaviour is systematically observed in a study.

38

Survey

A descriptive research method in which researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of subjects’ behaviour.

39

Theory

A system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations. A theory predicts events in general terms, while a hypothesis makes a specific prediction about a specified set of circumstances. A theory has been extensively tested and is generally accepted, while a hypothesis is a speculative guess that has yet to be tested.

40

Variability

The extent to which the scores in a data set tend to vary from each other and from the mean.

41

Variables

Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviours that are controlled or observed in a study.

42

Scientific Method

1. Formulate Testable Hypothesis
2. Select method and design study
3. collect data
4. analyze and conclude
5. report findings
ADVANTAGES: clarity and precision yield better communication, intolerance of error yields more reliable data

43

Experimental Research

- can have one group of subjects serve as their own control group
- can manipulate more than one independent variable in a study
- can use multiple dependent variables in a study
+ permits conclusions about cause and effect
- manipulation & control make experiements artificial - doubt applicability to everyday behavior
- practical realities and ethical concerns

44

Descriptive/Correlation Research

+broadens scope of phenomena that can be studied
- cannot demonstrate causality.