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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (56):
1

Acquisition

The formation of a new conditioned response tendency.

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Antecedents`

In behaviour modification, events that typically precede the target response.

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Avoidance learning

Learning that has occurred when an organism engages in a response that prevents aversive stimulation from occurring. Turning on air conditioner before a room gets hot (follows from escape learning, which would turn it on in response).

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`Behaviour modification

A systematic approach to changing behaviour through the application of the principles of conditioning.

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Behavioural contract

A written agreement outlining a promise to adhere to the contingencies of a behaviour modification program.

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Classical conditioning

A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.

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Conditioned reinforcers.

Stimulus events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers.

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Conditioned response (CR)

A learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning.

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Conditioned stimulus (CS)

A previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response.

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Continuous reinforcement

Reinforcing every instance of a designated response.

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Cumulative recorder

A graphic record of reinforcement and responding in a Skinner box as a function of time.

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Discriminative stimuli

Cues that influence operant behaviour by indicating the probable consequences (reinforcement or nonreinforcement) of a response.

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Elicit

To draw out or bring forth.

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Emit

To send forth.

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Escape learning

A type of learning in which an organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation. Turning on air conditioner to escape stifling heat - negative reinforcement.

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Extinction

The gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency.

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Fixed-interval (FI) schedule

A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed.

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Fixed-ratio (FR) schedule

A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses.

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Higher-order conditioning

A type of conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus.

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Instinctive drift

The tendency for an animal’s innate responses to interfere with conditioning processes.

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Instrumental learning.

A form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences.

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Intermittent reinforcement

A reinforcement schedule in which a designated response is reinforced only some of the time.

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Law of effect

The principle that if a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association between the stimulus and the response is strengthened.

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Learning

A relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience.

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Negative punishment

The removal of a rewarding stimulus. Removal of TV priviledges

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Negative reinforcement

The strengthening of a response because it is followed by the removal of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus. Put on a sweater in a cold house so you don't get cold.

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Observational learning

A type of learning that occurs when an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models. When a behaviour is strengthened indirectly, through vicarious conditioning, this process is at work

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Operant chamber

small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled.

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Operant conditioning

A form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences.

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Partial reinforcement

A reinforcement schedule in which a designated response is reinforced only some of the time.

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Pavlovian conditioning.

A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus.

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Phobias

Irrational fears of specific objects or situations`

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Positive punishment `

The presentation of an aversive stimulus. Corporal punishment

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Positive reinforcement

Reinforcement that occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus.

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Preparedness

A species-specific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways and not others. Seligman - Taste aversion conditioning - to look out for poisonous foods, aversion can be conditioned with only one pairing.

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Primary reinforcers

Events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs. Eating, sex, etc.

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Punishment

An event that follows a response that weakens or suppresses the tendency to make that response.

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Reinforcement

An event following a response that strengthens the tendency to make that response.

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Reinforcement contingencies

The circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of reinforcers.

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Resistance to extinction

In operant conditioning, the phenomenon that occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it has been terminated.

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Schedule of reinforcement

A specific presentation of reinforcers over time.

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Secondary (conditioned) reinforcers

Stimulus events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers.

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Shaping

The reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response.

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Skinner box

small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled.

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Spontaneous recovery

In classical conditioning, the reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus.

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Stimulus discrimination

The phenomenon that occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.

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Stimulus generalization

The phenomenon that occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus.

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Token economy

A system for doling out symbolic reinforcers that are exchanged later for a variety of genuine reinforcers.

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Trial

In classical conditioning, any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli.

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Unconditioned response (UCR)

An unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning.

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Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning.

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Variable-interval (VI) schedule

A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed.

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Variable-ratio (VR) schedule

A reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses.

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Two Process Theory of Avoidance

Warning light that a shock is about to occur, shock occurs, mouse runs to other compartment - escape learning, fleeing = operant response, negative reinforcement. Fleeing before shock occurs = avoidance learning, no chance for negative reinforcement. Avoidance removes an internal aversive stimulus - CONDITIONED FEAR, rather than external (shock). Fear response is acquired through classical conditioning, it is maintained through operant conditioning.

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Classical vs. Operant (instrumental) conditioning

classical (Pavlov) best explains reflexive responding that is largely controlled by stimuli that PRECEDE the response. Operant conditioning (Skinner) is controlled by consequences that come AFTER. Same as instrumental learning (Thorndike)

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Self-Modification Program

1. Specify Target Behaviour
2. Gather Baseline Data
3. Design Program
4. Execute and evaluate - contract
5. Bring program to end