Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (47):
The minimum amount of stimulation that an organism can detect for a specific type of sensory input.
Additive colour mixing
Formation of colours by superimposing lights, putting more light in the mixture than exists in any one light by itself.
A visual image that persists after a stimulus is removed. McCollough effect - circles of lines
Locating the source of a sound in space.
In form perception, progression from individual elements to the whole.
People, objects, events, and other standards that are used as a baseline for comparisons in making judgments.
Pairs of colours that produce grey tones when added together.
A cue to depth that involves sensing the eyes converging toward each other as they focus on closer objects.
The process in which the eyes become more sensitive to light in low illumination.
Stimuli that lie in the distance (that is, in the world outside the body).
A vision deficiency in which distant objects are seen clearly but close objects appear blurry. Focus of light is behind the retina (FAR from lens), can see FAR.
The process of detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a more complex form.
Neurons that respond selectively to very specific features of more complex stimuli.
A psychophysical law stating that larger and larger increases in stimulus intensity are required to produce perceptible increments in the magnitude of sensation.
The theory that perception of pitch corresponds to the rate, or frequency, at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates. Basilar is like a drum.
The idea that incoming pain sensations must pass through a “gate” in the spinal cord that can be closed, thus blocking pain signals.
Objects that can be represented in two-dimensional pictures but cannot exist in three-dimensional space.
Just noticeable difference (JND)
The smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detect.
The sensory system that monitors the positions of the various parts of one’s body (vestibular apparatus, etc).
A process in the retina that occurs when neural activity in a cell opposes activity in surrounding cells. GRID of black and white, you can see grey spots at intersections of white lines due to LA.
The process whereby the eyes become less sensitive to light in high illumination.
Cue to depth that involves images of objects at different distances moving across the retina at different rates.
A vision deficiency in which close objects are seen clearly but distant objects appear blurry. Focus of light falls in front of the retina (NEAR lens), can see NEAR.
Opponent process theory
The theory that colour perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colours. Explains afterimages and the need for four names to describe colours. Used high up in processing.
Simultaneously extracting different kinds of information from the same input. Parvocellular channel does colour while magnocellular does brightness.
The selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input.
A tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of continually changing sensory input.
An inference about which distal stimuli could be responsible for the proximal stimuli sensed.
A readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way.
The illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession.
Pictorial depth cues
Clues about distance that can be given in a at picture.
Linear Perspective (road lines come together)
Interposition (things overlapping)
Relative Size (closer = larger)
Height in Plane (near are lower in visual field)
Light and Shadow (3-D)
The idea that perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different portions, or places, along the basilar membrane. Basilar is like a harp.
The stimulus energies that impinge directly on sensory receptors.
The study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience.
Receptive field of a visual cell
The retinal area that, when stimulated, affects the ring of that cell.
A cue to the depth based on the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on the left and right retinas, so the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object.
A drawing that is compatible with two different interpretations that can shift back and forth.
A psychophysiological theory proposing that the detection of stimuli involves decision processes as well as sensory processes, which are inuenced by a variety of factors besides the physical intensity of a stimulus. q
The perception of contrours where none actually exist.
Subtractive color mixing
Formation of colors by removing some wavelengths of light, leaving less light than was originally there.
In form perception, a progression from the whole to the elements.
The theory of color vision holding that the human eye has three types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different wavelengths. Used in low level of processing (cones).
the groups of auditory nerve fibres fire neural impulses in rapid succession, creating volleys of impulses. accounts for high-frequency sounds in the frequency theory.
the size of a JND is a constant proportion of the size of the initial stimulus - weber fraction.
an automatic built-in process that keeps people tuned into the changes rather than the constants in their sensory input.
from retina, 90% go directly to LGN and then to the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe. 10% go to superior colliculus in midbrain, then thalamus then PVC - coordination of visual input with other sensory input.