Chapter 8 Flashcards Preview

Psychology 289 > Chapter 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (40):
1

Acculturation

The degree to which a person is socially and psychologically integrated into a new culture.

2

Algorithm

A methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem.

3

Availability heuristic

Basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind.

4

Belief perseverance

The tendency to hang on to beliefs in the face of contradictory evidence.

5

Bilingualism

The acquisition of two languages that use different speech sounds, vocabularies, and grammatical rules.

6

Cognition

The mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge.

7

Confirmation bias

The tendency to seek information that supports one’s decisions and beliefs while ignoring disconfirming information.

8

Conjunction fallacy

An error that occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone.q

9

Decision making

The process of evaluating alternatives and making choices among them.

10

Fast mapping

The process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure to the word.

11

Field dependence–independence

Individuals’ tendency to rely primarily on external versus internal frames of reference when orienting themselves in space.

12

Framing

How issues are posed or how choices are structured.

13

Functional fixedness

The tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use.

14

Gambler’s fallacy

The belief that the odds of a chance event increase if the event hasn’t occurred recently.

15

Heuristic

A strategy, guiding principle, or rule of thumb used in solving problems or making decisions.

16

Semantics

The area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations.

17

Syntax

A system of rules that specify how words can be combined into phrases and sentences.

18

Telegraphic Speech

Speech that consists mainly of content words; articles, prepositions, and other less critical words are omitted.

19

Theory of bounded rationality

Simon’s assertion that people tend to use simple strategies in decision making that focus on only a few facets of available options and often result in “irrational” decisions that are less than optimal.

20

Trial and error

Trying possible solutions sequentially and discarding those that are in error until one works.

21

Underextensions

Errors that occur when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than it is meant to.

22

Hill-climbing heuristic

Problem-solving approach that entails selecting the alternative at each choice point that appears to lead most directly to one's goal.

23

Insight

In problem solving, the sudden discovery of the correct solution following incorrect attempts based primarily on trial and error.

24

Language

A set of symbols that convey meaning, and rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an innite variety of messages.
1. symbolic
2. semantic
3. generative
4. structured

25

Language acquisition device (LAD)

An innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language.

26

Linguistic relativity

The theory that one's language determines the nature of one's thought.

27

Mean length of utterance (MLU)

The average length of children's spoken statements (measured in phonemes).

28

Mental set

Persisting in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past.

29

Metalinguistic Awareness

The ability to reect on the use of language.

30

Morphemes

The smallest units of meaning in a language.

31

Overextensions

Using a word incorrectly to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to.

32

Overregularization

In children, incorrect generalization of grammatical rules to irregular cases where they do not apply.

33

Phonemes

The smallest units of sound in a spoken language.

34

Problem solving

Active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily available.

35

Problem space

The set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver.

36

Representativeness heuristic

Basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event.

37

Risky decision making

Making choices under conditions of uncertainty.

38

emergentist theories

argue that the neural circuits supporting language are not prewired, but develop gradually in response to language learning experiences.

39

subjective utility

for a given individual, the personal worth of an uncertain outcome represents that outcome's subjective utility

40

Evolutionary theorists

argue that the human mind is wired to think in terms of raw frequencies, rather than base rates and probabilities.