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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (38)
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1
Q

The three components of a neuron

A

Dendrites, soma and the axon

2
Q

What are the three types of neurons

A

Sensory (recieve information IN about the world), motor (initiate instructions OUT, like movement and behavior) and interneurons (process the information between the sesory input and motor output)

3
Q

A _____ allows an ion to pass through the cell membrane of a neuron

A

Ion channel

4
Q

Three categories of neurons, by structure

A

Unipolar (one axon,no dendtrites), bipolar (one axon, one dendtrite), and multipolar (one axon, multiple dendtrites)

5
Q

What are ions

A

Electrically charged molecules

6
Q

What is a positively charged ion and a negatively charged one

A

Cations is positive
Anions is negative

7
Q

What is the axon

A

The part of the neuron that carries action potential and it the main source of output

8
Q

What two scientists won the Nobel prize in medicine in 1906

A

Ramon y Cajal and Golgi

9
Q

What is excitatory postsynapic potential (EPSP)and inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)?

A

EPSP- A depolarizing current which causes the membrane potential to become more positive
IPSP- A hyperpolarizing current which cause the membrane potential to become more negative

10
Q

What is the soma

A

Cell body of the neuron that contains the nucleus and genetic information and directs protein synthesis

11
Q

What is the synapse

A

Junction between the presynaptic terminal button of one neuron and the dendtrite, axon, of another.

12
Q

Types of neuroimaging techniques and there uses

A

PET (detects amount of radioactive substances, recording metabolic activity)
FMRI (measures changes in oxygen levels, relies on blood flow)
EEG (measures electrical brain activity, offer better temporal resolution than PET and FMRI)
DOI (offers high temporal and spatial resolution, shines infrared light into the brain)

13
Q

What is the corpus callosum

A

The thick bundle of neurons that connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain

14
Q

What are the three basic parts of the brain

A

the brainstem, the cerebellum and the cerebrum

15
Q

What is included in the brainstem and its function?

A

The medulla (controls heartbeat and breathing), pons, and reticular formation

16
Q

What is the cerebellum?

A

Aids in judgment of time, sound emotional control. Coordinates voluntary movement and helps store and process information outside of awareness.(motor development)

17
Q

What is the limbic system

A

The limbic system is associated with emotions and drives and sits between the cereal cortex and brainstem

18
Q

What is included in the limbic system?

A

Thalamus (relays messages between lover brain centers and cerebral cortex)
Hypothalamus (directs several Maintenace activates)
Hippocampus (linked to memory)
Amygdala (two lima-bean-sized neural clusters, linked to emotion)

19
Q

What is thecerebral cortex

A

the outer grey “bank” structure on top of the cerebrum that is wrinkled in order to create more surface for billions of neurons.

20
Q

What are the four lobes of the brain?

A

Parietal lobe (sensory cortex/taste and touch)
Frontal lobe (motor behaviors)
occipital lobe (sight)
temporal lobe (sound and smells)

21
Q

what is the difference between sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

A

sympathetic arouses and expends energy and parasympathetic calms and conserves energy.

22
Q

Sexual selection occurs through what processes

A

-intrasexual competition: when members of one sex compete against eachother
-intersexual selection: certain qualities, that members of a sex are attracted to, get passed down in greater numbers

23
Q

Gene selection theory

A

The modern theory of evolution by selection by which genes that are better able to encourage mating, have an advantage over genes less able to

24
Q

What is an adaption

A

Evolved solutions to problem that historically contributed to reproductive success

25
Q

What are the two types of adaptions

A

Survival adaptions: mechanisms that helped out ancestors handle the “hostile forces of nature”
Reproductions adaptions: mechanisms that help our ancestors compete for mates

26
Q

What are psychological and physiological adaptions

A

Psychological adaptions: mechanisms of the mind that have evolved to solve specific problems of survival or reproduction (sexual jealousy)
Physiological adaptions: adaptions that occur in the body as a consequence of one’s environment (how to skin makes calluses)

27
Q

What is the sexual strategies theory

A

Proposes that humans have an evolved list of different mating strategies, both short and long term, that vary depending on culture, social context ect.

28
Q

What is error management theory

A

How we think and judge cost asymmetries when presented with uncertain situations in order to minimize costly errors

29
Q

What are cost asymmetries

A

Decisions where on option has low cost but great reward and the other low reward but high cost

30
Q

What is the engine of natural selection

A

Reproductive success

31
Q

What is behavioral genetics

A

the study of how genes and environment work together to influence behavior

32
Q

what is an adoption study and what is a twin study

A

adoption study- a research method that compares adopted children to their adoptive and biological parents
Twin study- a research method thar compares the similarity of identical and fraternal twins

33
Q

What is quantitative genetics

A

scientific and mathematical methods for inferring genetic and environmental processes based on the degree of genetic and environmental similarity among organisms.

34
Q

What is heritability coefficient

A

How strongly differences among indivual are related to differences among their genes

35
Q

what is gene-environment interaction (GxE)

A

genetic differences affect behavior under some environmental conditions but not others

36
Q

What is epigenetics

A

A process in which the DNA itself is modified by environmental events and those genetic changes transmitted to children.

37
Q

Who and when was the structure of DNA discovered

A

by Clark and Crick in the 1950s

38
Q

What is the cerebrum

A

The cerebrum consists of two hemispheres, the outer layer called the cortex (gray matter) and the inner layer (white matter). The cortex consists of four lobes