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1
Q

Who promoted empiricism (the idea that all knowledge comes from experience)

A

Thomas Reid and John Locke

2
Q

What did Thomas reid and John Locke’s work emphasize

A

The role of the human observed and the primacy of the sense on defining how the mind comes to aquire knowledge; these principles were taught as courses on mental and moral philosophy

3
Q

What did Thomas reid and John locke’s course teach

A

They taught about the mind based on the factualties of intellect, will and the senses

4
Q

What was Wilhelm Wundt credited for

A

The formal development of modern psychology

5
Q

Who helped to establish the field of experimental psychology by serving as a strong promoter of the idea that psychology could be an experimental field and by providing classes, textbooks, and a lab for training students

A

Wilhelm wundt

6
Q

What event and when, served as the popular date for the establishment of the science of psychology

A

In 1879 when Wilhelm Wundt created a laboratory experience to his lectures

7
Q

What is structuralism

A

A school of American psychology that sought to describe the consious elements of the mind (founded by Wilhelm Wundt)

8
Q

What were Wilhelm wundt’s students trained in and for what purpose

A

They were trained to offer detailed self reports of their reactions to various stimuli, a procedure known as introspection. The goal was to identify the elements of consciousness, awareness of ourselves and our environment.

9
Q

What did Wilhelm wundts work demonstrate

A

That the mind could be measured and the nature of consciousness could be revealed through scientific means

10
Q

Who was Sigmund Freud

A

He was the father of psychoanalysis and was famous for using case studys

11
Q

Who was Max Wertherimer

A

A psychologist who began gestalt psychology in Germany

12
Q

What is gestalt psychology

A

Wertheimer and his colleagues Kurt Koffka, Kurt Lewin, and Wolfgang Kohler believed that studying that whole of any experience was richer than studying individual aspects of that experience.

13
Q

What did the gestalt psychologists propose

A

That the mind often processes information simultaneously rather than sequentially

14
Q

Who invented the intelligence tests and what was their goal

A

Alfred Binet and his goal was to develop a test that would identify school children in need of educational support

15
Q

Who were influenced by Darwins evelutionary theory and were among a group that identified with functionalism

A

William James, G. Stanley Hall and James McKeen Cattell

16
Q

What is functionalism

A

A school of American psychology that focused on the utility of consciousness (founded by William james)

17
Q

What is correlational research

A

When scientists passively observe and measure phenomena, without intervening and changing behaviors like in experiments

18
Q

What methods are associated with qualitative designs

A

-Particiapnt observation- when a researcher embeds themselves in a group to study their dynamic
-Case studies- an intensive examination of specific individuals or specific contexts
-narrative analysis- the study of personal accounts and stories of people, groups, or cultures

19
Q

What is the quasi-experimental design

A

A research method were random assignment is not used. Instead rely on preexisting group memberships (ex. Married vs single)

20
Q

Who was Paul Broca

A

A surgeon who conducted an autopsy on a former patient who lost his speech; he identified the damaged part on the left side of the brain, which is know known as “Broca’s area”.

21
Q

What are the three components of a neuron

A

The axon, the soma, and dendrites

22
Q

What are the three types of neurons by use

A

-Sensory- recieve information IN about the world
-Motor- initiate instructions OUT, like movement and behavior
-Interneuron- processes information between sensory input and motor output

23
Q

A ____ allows an ion to pass through the cell membrane of a neuron

A

Ion Channel

24
Q

Three categories of neuron by structure

A

-Unipolar neuron- one axon, no dendrite
-bipolar neuron- one axon, one dendrite
-multipolar neuron- one axon, multi dendrites

25
Q

What is the axon

A

The part of the neuron that Carries the action potential and is the main source of output

26
Q

What is the soma

A

Call body of the neuron that contains the nucleus and genetic information and directs protein synthesis

27
Q

What is the synapse

A

The junction between the presynaptic terminal button of one neuron and the axon/dendrite of another

28
Q

What is the exictatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)

A

EPSP- Depolarizing current that causes the membrane potential to become more positive
IPSP- Hyperpolarizing current that causes the membrane potential to become more negative

29
Q

What is the difference between adaptions and natural selection

A

Adaptions- evolved solutions to problems that historically contributed to reproductive success
Natural selection- differential reproductive success as a consequence of differences in heritage attributes

30
Q

What is epigenetics

A

A process in which DNA itself is modified by environmental events, and those genetic changes transmitted to children

31
Q

What is Jean Piagets theory

A

The theory that development occurs through a sequence of discontinuous stages; sensorimotor stage, preoperational reasoning stage, concrete operations stage, formal operations

32
Q

What is the sensorimotor stage

A

Occurs from birth to 2y and is where children’s thinking is largely realized through their perceptions of the world and their interactions with it (related to object permanence task)

33
Q

What is the preoperational reasoning stage

A

Occurs 2y to 7y and is where children can represent objects through language and drawings but cannot solve logical reasoning problems like conservation problems

34
Q

What is the formal operations stage

A

Occurs from 11y-12y to death and is where children attain reasoning abilities similar to a mature adult which allows them to solve systematic scientific problems and others. Also can think abstractly.

35
Q

What is the concrete operations stage

A

Occurs from 7y to 12y and is when children can think logically about concrete situation but not engage in systematic scientific reasoning.

36
Q

What is object permanence task

A

Jean piagets task that suggests that infants below 9 months fail to search for an object that is removed from their sight and, if not allowed to search immediately for said object, act as if they do not know it continues to exist

37
Q

What are the contributions of Braumrind

A

He Is credited for authoritative parenting styles. A style characterized by (but reasonable) expectations for children’s behavior, good communication, warmth and nurturance, a d the use of reasoning (rather than coercion) as preferred responses to children’s misbehavior

38
Q

Who identified three critiera for successful aging and what are the criteria

A

Rowe and Kahn identified the following:
-avoiding diseases (ex smoking)
-maintaince of high physical and cognitive functioning
-acrive engagement in social and productive activities

39
Q

Who can be credited for the idea that parents provide more sensitive and affectionate care for easygoing and attractive babies than difficult ugly ones; which can later contribute to the infants cognitive development

A

Langlois (1995) and Van Den Boom and Hoeksma (1994)

40
Q

Who created the Convoy Model of Social Relations and what did it entail

A

Antonucci’s theory proposed that the social connections that people accumulate are held together by exchanges in social support (ex emotional); the frequency, types and reciprocity of social exchanges change with age

41
Q

What is theory of mind

A

Children’s growing understanding of the mental state that affect people’s behaviors; infants are aware at an early stage that people have different mental states, and this motivates them to try and figure out what they are feeling, thinking, etc.

42
Q

What is social learning theory

A

A theory that argues that gender roles are learned through reinforcement, punishment, and modeling.

43
Q

What was Mary Ainsworth known for

A

She devised an experiment called “strange situations”, in reaction to findings that infants form an emotional bond to its caregiver based on care received (security of attachment). “Strange situations” involved breif separation from the caregiver.

44
Q

What is the presynaptic terminal button

A

Small knobs located at the end of an axon that release chemicals called neurotransmitters