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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (37)
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1
Q

Who is Herbert Simon

A

He argued that our decisions are bounded in their rationality

2
Q

What is bounded rationality (framework)

A

Human beings try to make rational decisions (such as weighing the cost and benefits of a choice) but our cognitive limitations prevent us from being fully rational (bounded by time and cost constraints limit the quality and quantity of the information available)

3
Q

What are biases

A

The systematic and predictable mistakes that influence everyone’s judgment

4
Q

Who are Tversky and Kehneman

A

Their research provided critical information about specific biases that influence judgement

5
Q

What are the biases: overconfident, anchoring and framing

A

Overconfident- the bias to have greater confidence in your judgement than is warranted
Anchoring- the bias to be affected by an initial anchor(piece of information), even if random, and to insufficiently adjust our judgments for the entirety of the decision
Framing- the bias to be systematically affected by the way in which information is presented (ex risk averisve when making decisions concerning gains and risk seeking when making decisions regarding losses)

6
Q

What bounds did Thaler suggest, in 2000, that affected decision making not captured by the concept of bounded rationality

A

Willpower- the tendency to place greater weight on present concerns rather than that of future concerns
Self-interest- the systematic and predictable ways in which we care about the outcomes of others (ex. Giving others more commodity than necessary out of a desire to appear fair)

7
Q

What are the decision making bounds ethnically and awareness

A

Ethnically- the systematic ways in which our ethics are limited in ways we ourselves are not aware of
Awareness- the systematic ways in which we fail to notice the obvious and important information that is available to us

8
Q

Who are Stanovich and West

A

They created the distinction between system 1 and system 2 as a critical path to fixing our biases
System 1- our intuitive decision making system, which Is typically fast, automatic, effortless, implict and emotional
System 2- our more deliberative decision making system, which is slower, consious, effortful, explicit, and logical

9
Q

What is common ground

A

Information that is shared by people who engage in a conversation (ex. Prior knowledge)

10
Q

What is audience design

A

When speakers design their utterances for their audience by taking into account that audiences knowledge

11
Q

What is the difference between lexicon and syntax

A

Lexicon- words and expressions
Syntax- grammatical rules got arranging words and expressions together

12
Q

What is a situation model

A

A mental representation of an event, object, or situation constructed at the time of comprehending a linguistic description (ex. Your friend says they bought their dog a ball, you might picture them giving the dog the ball)

13
Q

What is Pickering and Garrods theory

A

As you describe a situation using language, others begin to use similar words, Grammer, and many other aspects of language use (speech rate, accent, etc.) As you do so, similar situation models begin to be built in everyone’s minds

14
Q

What is priming

A

The activation of certain thought or feeling that make them easier to think of and act upon (situation models are built in the mind through priming)

15
Q

How important is gossiping

A

Very. It is how humans socialize, share their representations about the social world and regulate their social world (enlarge one’s ingrown against outgroups)

16
Q

What is the difference between ingroups and outgroups

A

Ingroup- groups to which a person belongs
Outgroup- groups to which a person does not belong

17
Q

What is the social brain hypothesis

A

Dunbar’s hypothesis that the human brain has evolved so that humans can maintain larger ingroups

18
Q

What is linguistic Intergroup bias

A

Coined by Maass, Salvi, Arcuri, and Semin. States that people tend to be biased on the actions of their ingroup and prejudiced on the actions of the outgroup

19
Q

What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

A

The hypothesis that the language that people use determines their thoughts (ex. Certain languages have certain words to describe large ideas/information, making it easier to recall)

20
Q

What are concepts

A

Building blocks for thinking (a mental grouping of similar objects, events, states, ideas, and or people)

21
Q

How do we form concepts

A

We THINK we form them through definitions (ex a triangle has three sides)
We ACTUALLY form them through prototypes

22
Q

What are prototypes

A

Mental images of the best example of a concept (the first image that comes to mind when given a concept; its personal)

23
Q

When do prototypes fail us

A

-when examples stretch our definitions, as in considering whether a stool is a chair
-when the boundary between concepts is fuzzy, as in judging blue green colors
- when examples contradict our prototype, such as considering if a whale is a mammal

24
Q

What are some problem solving strategies

A

Trial and error- useful when perfecting an invention like the light bulb, not useful when there is a clear answer as trial and error might miss is
Algorithms- a step by step mathematical strategy; always leads to the right answer if used correctly
Heuristics- a short cut that leads to a solution quickly
Insight- the sudden realization, a leap forward in thinking

25
Q

What are some obstacles to effective problem solving

A

Confirmation bias, mental set, and fixation

26
Q

What is intelligence

A

An individuals cognitive ability. This includes the ability to aquire, process, recall, and apply information

27
Q

What is G

A

Short for “general factor” and is often used to be synonymous with intelligence itself. Coined by Charles Spearman, who proposed that intelligence was one thing

28
Q

Who is Alfred Binet

A

Created a test to measure children’s intellectual capacity, along with his colleague Theodore Simon. This assessment became the first IQ test

29
Q

What is IQ

A

Short for “intelligence quotient”. This is a score, typically obtained from a widely used measure of intelligence that is meant to rank a person’s intellectual ability against others

30
Q

Who was Lewis Terman

A

He adapted the Binet-Simon test in the 1900’s and created the Stanford-Binet. (Perhaps one of the most famous IQ tests as it was stabdardized)

31
Q

What is standardized

A

Assessments that are given in the same exact manner to all people. With regards to intelligence tests, standardized scores are individual scores that are computed against normative scores for a population

32
Q

What is Norm

A

Assessments that are given to a representative sample of a population to determine the range of scores for that population

33
Q

What is the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

A

Created by David Wechsler and was a test that tapped into a wide range of intellectual abilities (unlike that of the Standford-Binet test)

34
Q

What is the Flynn Effect

A

Named after James Flynn, the first researcher to identify how new people tend to outperform tests that were normed by others years ago

35
Q

What is Howard Gardners “multiple intelligences” theory

A

Based on the idea that people process information through different “channels” and these are relatively independent from one another. He identified 8 common intelligences: logic-math, visual-spatial, music-rhythm, verbal-linguistic, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist

36
Q

What is stereotype threat

A

The phenomenon in which people are concerned that they will conform to a stereotype or that their performance does conform to that stereotype, especially in instances where that stereotype is brought to their conscious awareness

37
Q

What is the difference between fluid and crystallized intelligence

A

Fluid- ones ability to process new information, learn, and solve problems (accessing your crystallized intelligence)
Crystallized- ones stored knowledge, accumulated over the years