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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (65):
1

What are differences between protons and neutrons

Protons - are a positive charge, determines identity of the element

Neutrons - Have a neutral charge, Number of neutrons can change mass of element and create an isotope of the element

2

What are similarities between protons and neutrons

they are both centered in the nucleus of an atom. They add up to equal the mass number.

3

What are the differences between protons and electrons?

Protons - are a positive charge and are located inside the nucleus

Electrons - are a negative charge and located outside of the nucleus

4

How do you write an isotope that has 1 protein and 2 neutrons

3/1H

5

How do you write the symbol for an isotope that has 92 protons and 146 neutrons

238/92U

6

Periodic law

the elements if arranged according to their atomic weights, show a distinct periodicity of their properties

7

Period

Horizontal row of elements in the periodic table

8

Group

or families, are columns of elements in the periodic table. They share many similarities , as in the human family.

9

Ion

Electronically charged particles that result from a gain or loss of one or more electrons by the parent atom.

10

Does N tend to form a positive or negative ion

Positive

11

Name the element Ca

Calcium

12

Name the element Cu

Copper

13

Name the element Co

Cobalt

14

How many valence electrons are found in Mg

2

15

How many valence electrons are found in K

1

16

How many valence electrons are found in C

4

17

How many valence electrons are found in Br

7

18

How many valence electrons are found in Ar

8

19

What sublevels would be found in the principal energy level 1?

1s

20

What sublevels would be found in the principal energy level 2?

2s, 2p

21

What sublevels would be found in the principal energy level 3?

3s, 3p, 3d

22

What sublevels would be found in the principal energy level 4?

4s, 4p, 4d, 4f

23

What is the max number of electrons that can exist in the following principal energy levels?
s?
p?
d?
f?

s-2
p-6
d-10
f-14

24

How do you write the electron configuration for an atom or ion of:
14silicone
53Iodine
15P3-
35Br-

Silicone - 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p2
Iodine - 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6, 5s2, 4d10, 5p5
Phosphorous - 1s2, 2s2, 2p6,3s2,3p6
Br - 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6

25

Is Se2-, KR isoelectric?

yes

26

Is Mg2+, Ne isoelectric?

yes

27

Is Mg2+, Na isoelectric?

no

28

Is Li+, Ne isoelectric?

no

29

Is S2-, F- isoelectric?

no

30

Rank Cl, Br, I, and F by atomic size

F, Cl, Br, I

31

Rank Cl, Br, I, and F by ionization energy

I, BR, CL, F

32

Rank Cl, Br, I, and F by atomic size by electron affinity

I, BR, CL, F

33

Atomic Number?

Number of protons in the atom

34

Mass?

Sum of the number of protons and neutrons

35

Ionization energy

energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom

36

Electron Affinity

Energy released when a single electron is added to an isolated atom

Increases, it releases more energy, as you go up in a family or to the right of a period

37

Valence electron?

are the outermost electrons in an atom, used in bonding process

38

Atomic orbital

specific region of a sublevel containing a maximum of 2 electrons

39

principal energy levels

regions where electrons may be found, and have integral values designated n=1, n=2, and so forth

40

electron configuration

describes the arrangement of electrons in an atom

41

Does a metal tend to gain an electron or lose

lose

42

Does a non-metal tend to gain an electron or lose

gain

43

ground state/relaxation

when electron of atom are in the lowest possible energy levels

44

excited state

when electron is furthest from nucleus

45

Dalton's Theory

smallest unit of matter is an atom

46

atoms consist of what?

subatomic particles

47

spectroscopy

absorption or emission of light by atoms

48

electromagnetic radiation

to understand light: UV, gamma, visible light, microwave

49

What involved in a chemical reaction?

only electrons

50

Metals are what at room temp?

solid, except mercury

51

What else increases if Principal levels increase

energy

52

Subshell # of orbitals

S- 1
P - 3
D - 5
F - 7

53

Cation

Loses electrons (positive charge), metals, smaller

54

Anion

Gains electrons (negative charge), non-metal, bigger

55

Ionization does what down a group/family?

Decreases

56

Ionization does what across a period?

Increases

57

isotope

atoms of same element having a different mass

58

which of Dalton's theories do not hold up?

2 & 3, in the list of 6

59

Cathode ray tube was used to discover?

electrons

60

what was 2nd particle to be discovered?

protons

61

Majority of mass in an atom is located where?

in the nucleus

62

what does light help us to understand?

Electronic structure

63

electron density is what?

Electrons move rapidly within the orbital

64

Equation for electron capacity

2 (n) ^2
n=principal energy lvl

65

How do you determine number of orbitals in a subshell

take max electrons and divide 2