Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (36):
Model of the way that gas particles (molecules or atoms) behave at the atomic/molecular level.
Kinetic Molecular Theory
1) Gases are made up of tiny atoms/molecules that are in constant, random motion. Particles are moving linearly.
2)The Distance of separation among these atoms/molecules is very large. Gas is mostly empty space.
3)All atoms/molecules behave independently.
4)Atoms/molecules collide with each other and container without losing energy
5)The average kinetic energy of the atoms/molecules increases/decreases in proportion to absolute temperature.
When do gases behave more ideally?
when there is low pressure and high temperatures
Boyle's law calculates what?
volume resulting from a pressure change, or vise versa
Volume of a gas varies with absolute temperature if pressure and number of mole of gas are constant (think hot air balloon)
relationship between the volume and # of the mol of a gas at constant temperature and pressure
volume occupied by 1 mol of any gas
standard temperature and pressure
What is the molar volume of any gas?
d = mass/volume
Partial pressure, Pt = p1 + p2 + p3 + etc....
a liquids measure of its resistance to flow
Molecules with complex structures and polar molecules, have lower or higher viscosity?
tend to have higher viscosity than less structurally complex, less polar liquids
Does viscosity decrease or increase with temperature?
generally decreases with increasing temperature
measure of attractive forces exerted among molecules at the surface of the liquid
Does surface tension increase or decrease with an increase in temperature or a decrease in the polarity?
decreases with increase temp or decreased polarity
substance that can be added to a liquid to decrease surface tension
Example of surfactant?
when the rate of evaporation and condensation become equal
vapor pressure of a liquid
defined as the pressure exerted by the vapor at equilibrium
normal boiling point
temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to 1 atm
Large intermolecular attractive forces have higher or lower boiling points?
higher boiling points than non polar liquids
Does gasoline have higher or lower attractive forces
lower, making it easier to burn
attractive forces between polar molecules, dipole-dipole interactions do what with vapor pressure and b.p.
decrease vapor pressure and increase boiling point
temporary dipoles which can interact with other temporary dipoles, just as permanent dipoles interact in polar molecules
Van Der Waals Forces?
collective name for london forces and dipole-diopole
Hydrogen atom needs to bond to what highly electronegative atom to be a 'Hydrogen Bond'?
Nitrogen, Oxygen, or Fluorine
polar solid or nonpolar solid, which one has higher melting point?
regular repeating structure
no organized structure
what kind of solid is glass and concrete?
amorphous, same as plastic
composed of positive and negative ions.
electrostatic forces hold the crystal together
High melting points
hard n brittle
ex. sodium chloride
atoms held together by covalent bonds.
-very high melting points
-insoluble in most solvents
molecules held together by intermolecular attractive forces (London forces, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding)
-usually soft and have low melting points
-frequently volatile and poor electrical conductors
-held together by metallic bonds
-high electron density surround the positive metal nuclei