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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (36):
1

Ideal Gas

Model of the way that gas particles (molecules or atoms) behave at the atomic/molecular level.

2

Kinetic Molecular Theory

1) Gases are made up of tiny atoms/molecules that are in constant, random motion. Particles are moving linearly.
2)The Distance of separation among these atoms/molecules is very large. Gas is mostly empty space.
3)All atoms/molecules behave independently.
4)Atoms/molecules collide with each other and container without losing energy
5)The average kinetic energy of the atoms/molecules increases/decreases in proportion to absolute temperature.

3

When do gases behave more ideally?

when there is low pressure and high temperatures

4

Boyle's law calculates what?

volume resulting from a pressure change, or vise versa

5

Charle's law:

Volume of a gas varies with absolute temperature if pressure and number of mole of gas are constant (think hot air balloon)

6

Avogadro's Law

relationship between the volume and # of the mol of a gas at constant temperature and pressure

7

Molar volume

volume occupied by 1 mol of any gas

8

STP?

standard temperature and pressure

9

What is the molar volume of any gas?

22.4L

10

Density equation?

d = mass/volume

11

Dalton's law

Partial pressure, Pt = p1 + p2 + p3 + etc....

12

Viscosity

a liquids measure of its resistance to flow

13

Molecules with complex structures and polar molecules, have lower or higher viscosity?

tend to have higher viscosity than less structurally complex, less polar liquids

14

Does viscosity decrease or increase with temperature?

generally decreases with increasing temperature

15

Surface tension

measure of attractive forces exerted among molecules at the surface of the liquid

16

Does surface tension increase or decrease with an increase in temperature or a decrease in the polarity?

decreases with increase temp or decreased polarity

17

Surfactant?

substance that can be added to a liquid to decrease surface tension

18

Example of surfactant?

Soap, Detergents

19

dynamic equilibrium

when the rate of evaporation and condensation become equal

20

vapor pressure of a liquid

defined as the pressure exerted by the vapor at equilibrium

21

normal boiling point

temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to 1 atm

22

Large intermolecular attractive forces have higher or lower boiling points?

higher boiling points than non polar liquids

23

Does gasoline have higher or lower attractive forces

lower, making it easier to burn

24

attractive forces between polar molecules, dipole-dipole interactions do what with vapor pressure and b.p.

decrease vapor pressure and increase boiling point

25

London forces

temporary dipoles which can interact with other temporary dipoles, just as permanent dipoles interact in polar molecules

26

Van Der Waals Forces?

collective name for london forces and dipole-diopole

27

Hydrogen atom needs to bond to what highly electronegative atom to be a 'Hydrogen Bond'?

Nitrogen, Oxygen, or Fluorine

28

polar solid or nonpolar solid, which one has higher melting point?

polar solid

29

crystalline solid

regular repeating structure

30

amorphous solid

no organized structure

31

what kind of solid is glass and concrete?

amorphous, same as plastic

32

ionic solid?

crystalline solid:
composed of positive and negative ions.
electrostatic forces hold the crystal together
High melting points
hard n brittle
ex. sodium chloride

33

Covalent solid

crystalline solid:
atoms held together by covalent bonds.
-very high melting points
-extremely hard
-insoluble in most solvents

34

Molecular solid

crystalline solid:
molecules held together by intermolecular attractive forces (London forces, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding)
-usually soft and have low melting points
-frequently volatile and poor electrical conductors
ex: ice

35

Metallic Solid

crystalline solid:
-held together by metallic bonds
-high electron density surround the positive metal nuclei
-High conductivity
-easily shaped

36

sublimation

process in which some molecules in sold state convert directly to gaseous state