Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (35):
homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
component of solution that is present in lesser quantity than solvent
solution component present in the largest quantity (water in most cases)
when solvent is water
solutions of electrolytes
formed formed from solutes that are soluble iconic compounds
solutions of nonelectrolytes
formed from non-dissociating molecular solutes
consists of solute particles distributed through a solvent. (not completely homogeneous)
Size of a colloid
diameters of 1 x 10 -9 to 1 x 10 -7
Heterogeneous mixture that contains particles much larger than a colloidal suspension. Not a true solution
Degree of solubility
How much solute can dissolve in a given volume of solvent
when a solution contains all the solute that can be dissolved at a particular temperatures
solid in contact with the solution
when a solution is heated and cooled with the maximal dissolved solute
number of moles of a gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temperature is proportional to the pressure of the gas
Gases are most soluble when?
amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution
Solute concentration must be in what type of unit?
nonvolatile solute is added to a solvent, the vapor pressure of the solvent decreases in proportion to the concentration of the solute
symbolized 'M', number of mol of solute per L of solution
symbolized 'm', number of mol of solute per kilogram of solvent in a solution.
Difference between molality and molarity?
Molality does not vary with temperature, whereas molarity is temperature dependent
Molality is preferred concentration unit for studies of what?
freezing point depression and boiling point elevation
net movement of solute or solvent molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
region where the concentration decreases over a distance
Selectively Permeable Membranes
structure of a cell membrane allows only small molecules to diffuse freely across this barrier. Large molecules and highly charged ions are restricted by the barrier
membranes, permeable to solvent, but not to solute
diffusion of a solvent (water) through a semipermeable membrane in response to a (water) concentration gradient
pressure that must be exerted to stop the flow of water across a selectively permeable membrane by osmosis
molarity of particles in solution; abbreviated osmol (osmotic pressure calculations)
(eq), # of grams of an ion corresponding to Avogadro's number of electrical charges (eq/L)
1 eq = ?
convert eq to meq
multiply by 10^3
solution having lower osmolarity