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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (35):
1

Solution

homogeneous mixture of two or more substances

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Solute

component of solution that is present in lesser quantity than solvent

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Solvent

solution component present in the largest quantity (water in most cases)

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aqueous solution

when solvent is water

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solutions of electrolytes

formed formed from solutes that are soluble iconic compounds

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solutions of nonelectrolytes

formed from non-dissociating molecular solutes

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Colloidal suspension

consists of solute particles distributed through a solvent. (not completely homogeneous)

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Size of a colloid

diameters of 1 x 10 -9 to 1 x 10 -7

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Suspension

Heterogeneous mixture that contains particles much larger than a colloidal suspension. Not a true solution

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Degree of solubility

How much solute can dissolve in a given volume of solvent

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Saturated solution

when a solution contains all the solute that can be dissolved at a particular temperatures

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precipitate

solid in contact with the solution

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supersaturated solution

when a solution is heated and cooled with the maximal dissolved solute

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Henry's law

number of moles of a gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temperature is proportional to the pressure of the gas

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Gases are most soluble when?

low temperatures

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Solution concentration

amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solution

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Solute concentration must be in what type of unit?

mole-based

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Raoult's law

nonvolatile solute is added to a solvent, the vapor pressure of the solvent decreases in proportion to the concentration of the solute

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Molarity

symbolized 'M', number of mol of solute per L of solution

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Molality

symbolized 'm', number of mol of solute per kilogram of solvent in a solution.

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Difference between molality and molarity?

Molality does not vary with temperature, whereas molarity is temperature dependent

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Molality is preferred concentration unit for studies of what?

freezing point depression and boiling point elevation

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Diffusion

net movement of solute or solvent molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

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concentration gradient

region where the concentration decreases over a distance

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Selectively Permeable Membranes

structure of a cell membrane allows only small molecules to diffuse freely across this barrier. Large molecules and highly charged ions are restricted by the barrier

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semipermeable membranes

membranes, permeable to solvent, but not to solute

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Osmosis

diffusion of a solvent (water) through a semipermeable membrane in response to a (water) concentration gradient

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Osmotic pressure

pressure that must be exerted to stop the flow of water across a selectively permeable membrane by osmosis

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Osmolarity

molarity of particles in solution; abbreviated osmol (osmotic pressure calculations)

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Equivalent

(eq), # of grams of an ion corresponding to Avogadro's number of electrical charges (eq/L)

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1 eq = ?

10^3 meq

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convert eq to meq

multiply by 10^3

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isotonic

same strength

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hypotonic

solution having lower osmolarity

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hypertonic

greater osmolarity