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Flashcards in Chapter 8 Deck (27):
1

Arrhenius theory

acids - dissolve in water to form hydrogen ions or protons
base - dissolved in water to form hydroxide ions (OH-)

2

Bronsted-Lowry theory

defines acid as a proton (H+) donor and a base as a proton acceptor

3

H3O+ is referred to as the hydrated proton or...

Hydronium ion

4

Ammonia accepts a proton from the solvent water, producing OH-, the ...

hydroxide ion

5

Amphiprotic

water, owing to the fact that it possesses both acid and base properties

6

Conjugate acid

species formed when a base accepts a proton

7

Conjugate base

species formed when an acid donates a proton

8

Conjugate Acid-base pair

acid and base on the opposite sides of the equation are collectively termed Conjugate Acid-base pair

9

Autoionization

self-ionization of water

10

Ion product for water

product of hydronium and hydroxide ion concentration in pure water

11

pH scale

gauges the hydronium ion concentration and reflects the degree of acidity or basicity of a solution

12

Neutralization

reaction of an acid with a base to produce a salt and water

13

Titration

involves the addition of measured amounts of a standard solution to neutralize the second, unknown solution

14

Standard solution

one whose concentration is known with certainty

15

Indicator

substance that changes color as the solution reaches a certain pH, is added to the unknown solution

16

Buret

Solution of sodium hydroxide, perhaps .10000 M, is carefully added to the unknown solution

17

equivalence point

the number of mol of hydroixide ion added is equal to the number of mol of hydronium ion present in the unknown acid

18

Polyprotic substances

donate (as acids) or accept (as bases) more than one proton per formula unit

19

Buffer solution

contains components that enable the solution to resist large changes in pH when either acids or bases are added.

20

Buffer capacity

measure of the ability of a solution to resist large changes in pH when a strong acid or strong base is added.

21

Oxidation

defined as a loss of electrons, loss of hydrogen atoms, or gain of oxygen atoms

22

Reduction

is defined as a gain of electrons, gain of hydrogen atoms, or loss of oxygen atoms

23

Corrosion

Deterioration of metals caused by an oxidation-reduction

24

Voltaic cell

electrochemical cell that converts stored chemical energy into electrical energy

25

anode

electrode at which oxidation occurs

26

Cathode

Electrode at which reduction occurs

27

Electrolysis

Reactions use electrical energy to cause non-spontaneous oxidation-reduction reactions to occur