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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (131):
1

anything that has mass and occupies space can eist in three states; solid, liquid, or gas (no volume or shape)

matter

2

study of matter and its interactions

chemistry

3

smallest unit of matter that retains original properties

atom

4

in nucleus; positive charge;

proton

5

in nucleus; no charge

neutron

6

in cloud; negative charge (these are in the shells in the clous so we can have chemical bonding)

electron

7

atoms are electrically ______- they have _______ ________; # of protons and electrons are ____ cancelling each others charge; number of ____ do not have to equal number of protons

neutral, no charge
equal
neutrons

8

regions surronding atomic nucleus where elctrons exist

electron shell

9

# of protons that an atom has in its nucleus is

atomic number

10

substance that cannot be broken down into simple substance by chemical means

element

11

what're the 4 chemicals that make up 96% of our bodies?

hydrogen
oxygen
carbon
nitrogen

12

the periodice table lists elements by their ____

increasing atomic numbers

13

atoms of two or more elements physically intermixed w/out changing chem nature of the elements themselves

mixture

14

mixture containing two or more components with large unevenly distributed particles; WILL settle out when left undisturbed

suspension (type of mixture)

15

2 or more components with small, evenly distributed particles; will NOT settle out

colloid (type of mixture)

16

2 or more components w/ extremely small, evenly distributed particles; will NOT settle out; contain a solute dissolved in a solvent

solutions

17

sustance that is dissolved

solute (sugar/ solid)

18

substance that dissolves solute

solvent( water/ liquid)

19

What are energy relationships based on?

electrons

20

matter can be combined chemically when atons are combined by ___

chemical bonds

21

formed by chem bonding between 2 or more atoms of same element; atoms come together to form this

molecule

22

formed when 2 or more atoms from diff elements combine by chem bonding

compound

23

very large molecules composed of many atoms

macromolecules

24

represent molecules symbolically w/ letters and numbers; formula giving the numbers of atoms of each of the elements present in one molecule of a specific compound

molecular formulas

25

Chem bonds are formed when ___ _____ of atoms interact

valence electrons

26

what determines how an atom interacts with other atoms and whether it will bond w/ a specific atoms

valence electrons

27

states thaat an atom is most stable when it has 8 electrons in its valence shell

octet rule

28

states that for atoms w/ 5 or fewer electrons, that the atoms are most stable when there valence elctron shell has 2 electrosn

duet rule

29

formed when electrons are transferred from a metal atom to a nonmetal; results in formation of ions; transfer that results in a charged molecule (cations and anions) (ex: sodium chloride)

ionic bond

30

positively charged ion; forms when metal loses one or more electrons

cation

31

negatively charged ion; forms when nonmetal gains one or more elctron

anion

32

form when two or more nonmetals share electrons; strongest bond

covalent bond

33

how many covalent bonds can we have?

single bond, double bond, or triple bond of electron pairs

34

all elements have protons that attract electrons; property known as...

electronegativity

35

the ___ electronegativity an element has the more strongly it ______, which then _____ them away from less electronegative elements

more, attracts, pulls

36

results when two nonmetals in a molecule w/ similar or identical electronegaticities pull with equal force. Therefore share electrons equally

nonpolar covalent bonds

37

what 3 situations can nonpolar molecules occur in?

-atoms sharing electrons are same elements
-arrangement of atoms makes one atom unabe to pull more stongly than another atom
-bond is between carbon and hydrogen

38

forms polar molecules when nonmetals w/ diff electronegativities interact resulting in an unequal sharing of electrons (ex water)

polar covalent bonds

39

polar molecules w/ partially positive and partially negative ends are known as...

dipoles

40

atoms w/ higher electronegativity in polar covalent bonds become ___

partially negative

41

weak attractions between partially positive end of one dipole and partially negative end of another dipole

hydrogen bonds

42

what is respondisble for surfacce tension?

hydrogen bonds

43

what's the key property of water?

surface tension

44

occurs every time a chemical bond is formed, broken, or rearranged, or when electrons are transferred between two or more atoms

chemical reaction

45

series of symbols and abbreviations used to demonstrate what occurs in a reaction

chemical notation

46

in a chemical equation, _____ are on the left side, are startgin ingridients; will undergo reaction

reactants

47

in a chem euqation, ___ are on the right side, are the results of the reaction

products

48

reactions can proceed in either direction as denoted by 2 arrows tht run in opposite directions

reversible reactions

49

capacity to do work or put matter into motion or fuel chemical reactions

energy

50

stored energy; can be released to do work at some later time

potential energy

51

potential energy that has been released or set in motion to perform work; all atoms have this energy b/c they are constantly in motion

kinectic energy

52

energy found in bonds between atoms; drives nearly all chem process

chem energy

53

generated by movement of charged particles or ions

electrical energy

54

energy directly transferred from one object to another

mechanical energy

55

reactions that require input of energy from another source; products contain more energy than reactants b/c energy was inversted so reaction could proceed

endergonic reactions

56

reactions release excess energy (heat) so products have less energy than reactants

exergonic reactions

57

when a large substance is broken down into smaller substances; uses ____ energy

catobolic reactions
exergonic
AB- A + B

58

one or more atoms form reactants are exchanged for another; rearranging atoms

exchange reactions
AB + CD- AD + BC

59

special kind of exchange reaction; occurs when electros and energy are exchanged instead of atoms

oxidation-reduction reactions

60

special kind of exchange reaction; occurs when electros and energy are exchanged instead of atoms; this reaction is a ____ reaction

oxidation-reduction reactions
exergonic

61

reactant that loses electrons is

oxidized

62

reactant that gains electrons is

reduced

63

reactions that occur when small subunits are united by chemical bonds to make large more complex substances (take small and make it big); this reaction is a ____ reaction

anabolic reaction

A + B- AB
endergonic

64

the energy required to overcome the repulsion of their own electrons is called

activation energy

65

why must activation energy be used?

so that the reactants reach their transition states (ready to form new bonds) in order to react and form products (hill ex on page 11)

66

which factors increase reaction rate by reducing activation energy or increasing likelihood of strong collisions between reactants (4)

- concentration
-temperature
-reactant properties
-presence or absense of catalyst

67

how will concentration increase reaction rate by reducing activation energy or increasing likelihood of strong collisions between reactants

the more concentrated it is the more likely it'll increase the chances of a sucessful collisions

68

how will temperature increase reaction rate by reducing activation energy or increasing likelihood of strong collisions between reactants

heat a substance up, atoms move more, so it will collide.

69

how will reactant properties increase reaction rate by reducing activation energy or increasing likelihood of strong collisions between reactants

size and phase influence reaction rates:
small atoms have more energy and move faster; gasses are faster than solids

70

substance that increases reaction rate by lowering activation energy w/out being consumed or altered in reaction

catalyst

71

biological catalysts; most are proteins

enzymes

72

describes enzyme's interaction w/ its substrates; binding of a substance causes a small shape change that ___ energy of activation (shape of active site on enzyme, directly matches shape of reactants)

induced-fit mechanism
reduces

73

the chemistry of life

biochemistry

74

____ ____ do not contain carbon bonded to hydrogen; include ____ ( 4 exjs)

include water, acids, bases, and salts

75

those compounds that do contain carbon bonded to hydrogen

organic compounds

76

___ makes up 60-80% of mass of human body and has several key properties vital to our existence (4)

water (polar covalent bond)
1. high heat capacity- able to absorb hear w/out significantly changing temp itself ( lake takes long time to warm up)
2. carries heat w/ it when it evaporates
3. cushions and protects body structures because of relatively high density
4. acts as a lubricants between 2 adjacent surfaces (reduces friction)

77

___ is the body's primary solvent or the universal solvent? why?

water
b/c so many solutes will dissolve in it entirely or to some degree

78

water is only able to dissolve what?

hydrophillic solutes
"like dissolves like"
water dissolves ionic and polar covalent structures

79

solutes that do not have fully or partially charged ends are...; do not dissolved in water; includes uncharged nonpolar covalent molecules like ___ and ____

hydrophobic
oils and fats

80

___ recive/ accept H while _____ donate H

bases
acids donate

81

hydrogen ion or proton donor; # of hydrogen ions increases in water when its is added; pH less than 7

acid

82

hydrogen ion acceptor; # of hydrogen ions decreases in water when its addded; pH is greater than 7

base

83

chemical system that resists changes in pH; prevents large swings in pH when acid or base is added to a solution

buffer

84

any metal cation and nonmetal anion held together by ionic bonds

salt

85

salts can dissolved in water to form cations and anions called ....; These are capable of what?

electrolytes
electrical current

86

single units; makes up carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acid by taking out water

monomers

87

combine single subunits that can be combined to build larger structures

polymers

88

anabolic reaction that links monomers together and makes a molecule of water in process

dehydration synthesis

89

catabolic reaction that uses water to break up polymers into smaller subunits

hydrolysis

90

composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, function primarily as fuel; energy storage; important for storage

carbohydrates

91

sugar; monomers from which all carbs are made; glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, deoxyribose are most abundant version of this

monosacchrides

92

What chemicals make up lactose

glucose + galactose

93

What chemicals make up maltose

glucose + glucose

94

formed by union of two monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis; pull water out

disaccharides

95

What chemicals make up table salt?

glucose + fructose

96

3 main types of carbs:

-polysaccharides
-disaccharides
-monosaccharides

97

consist of many monosaccharides joined to one another by dehydration synthesis reactions

polysaccharides

98

____ is the storage polymer of glucose. It's mostly in ____ and _____

glycogen
skeletal muscle and liver cells

99

group of nonpolar hydrophobic* molecules composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen; includes fats and oils; important in _____ structure; in lipid bilayer, under your skin, around kidneys (for _____)

lipids
cellular
protection
*won't do well in water; issue if we want to transport lipid molecules in blood

100

lipid monomers; may have non, one, or more double bonds between carbons in hydrocarbon chain; building blocks

fatty acid

101

solid at room temperature; have no double bonds; bad for your health (in butter and whipped cream)

saturated fatty acids

102

generally liquid at room temperature; have 1 double bond;

monounsaturated fatty acids
better to commsume unsaturated fat than saturated

103

liquid at room temp; have 2 or more double bonds

polyunsaturated fatty acids

104

3 fatty acids linked by dehydration synthesis (pull out water) toglycerol; storage polymer for fatty acids

triglyceride

105

composed of a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid tails and one phosphate head. What makes the phospholipids vital to the structure of the cell membranes?

phospholipid
amphiphilic nature

106

molecule w/ polar head and a nonpolar tail

amphiphilic

107

nonpolar and share a steroid nucleus; ex: vitamin D, bial salts, secretion from gall bladder

steroids

108

steroid that forms basis for all other steroids

cholesterol

109

What are all the functions of proteins? (5)

-function as enzymes
-play structural roles
-involved in movement
-function in the body's defenses
-can be used as fuel

110

20 diff ______; can be linked by______ into polypeptides

amino acids
peptide bonds

111

formed from 2 or more amino acids linked together by peptide bonds through dehydration synthesis

peptides

112

consist of 2 amino acids, tripeptides (3 amino acids), and polypeptides ( 10 or more amino acids)

dipeptides

113

long rope like stands; composed mostly of nonpolar amino acids; link things together and add strength and durability to structures; water insoluble

fiborous proteins

114

spherical or globe-like; composed mostly of polar amino acids; function as enzymes, hormones, and other cell messangers; water soluble

globular proteins

115

amino acid sequence of polypeptide chain

primary structure (complex structure of a complete protein is divided into four levels this is one)

116

one or more segments of primary structure folded in specific ways; held together by hydrogen bonds

secondary structure

117

coilded spring; part of secondary structure; assembled

alpha helix

118

venetian blind; spontaneously; part of secondary structure

beta pleaded sheet

119

three-dimensional shape that peptide chain assumes (twists, folds, and coils including secondary structure); stabilized by hydrogen bonding; based on 2ndary structure

tertiary structure

120

linking together more than one polypeptide chain in a specific arrangement; critical to function of protein as a whole

quaternary structure

121

process of destroying a protein's shape by heat, pH changes, or exposure to chemicals; influenced by tem[, pH, # of diff chemicals; no way to put protein back together

protein denuturation

122

monomers of nucleic acid; DNA, RNA

nucleotides

123

how do you make up a nucleotide structure?

5 carbon pentose sugar, ribose or dexyribose, phosphate

124

doubled ringed molecule

purines

125

single-ringed molecule

pyrimidines

126

energy held in bonds; major energy transfer time (main source of energy in body);

ATP

127

how is ATP synthesized from ADP and Pi?

using energy from oxidation of fuels (like glucose)

128

production of large quantities of ATP requires what?

oxygen, which is why we breathe

129

an extremely large molecules found in nuclei of cells; composed of 2 long chairs that twist around each other to form a double helix

DNA

130

what're the bases of DNA

adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine

131

What forms backbone of strand

pentose sugar deoxyribose