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Flashcards in Chapter 5 Deck (65):
1

skin (cutaneous membrane) is important for what?

homeostasis

2

superficial layer that consists of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium resting on a basement membrane dead cells and avascular (no blood vessels so no constant supply of oxygen); die a lot b/c avascular

Epidermis
contains : keratinocytes (cells that make keratonin)

3

deep to epidermis and basement membrane; consists of loose connective tissue and dense irregular connective tissue

dermis

4

what are some examples of acessory glands in the skin?

-sweat glands
-sabaceous glands
-hair
-nails

5

skin contains ____ and ______ that are responsible for goosebumps

sensory receptors and arrector pili muscles

6

because the epidermis is avascular, how does it get oxygen and nutrients?

Must rely on diffusion of oxygen and nutrients from blood vessels in deeper dermis

7

what are the superficial cells made up of? why?

About 50% of cells in epidermis are too far from adequate blood supply to sustain life; superficial layers are made up entirely of dead cells

8

also known as superficial fascia or subcutaneous fat, is deep to dermis

Hypodermis

9

what does the hypodermis do?

-abundant blood supply
-anchors skin to muscle and bones

10

What're the 5 functions of the integumentary system?

1. protect
2. sensation
3. thermoregulation
4. Excretion (of nitrogen containing wastes)
5. vitamin D synthesis

11

process that enables nervous system to perceive changes in the body’s internal or external surroundings; critical to homeostasis: we need to recognize when we get in dangerous temperatures; sufficient ability to feel pain

sensation

12

process where waste products and toxins are eliminated from body; this helps maintains an electrolyte balance (don't want too much or too little)

excretion

13

Why do we need Vitamin D?

Vitamin D is required for calcium ion absorption from small intestine; calcium ion is critical for nerve function, muscle contraction, building and maintaining bone tissue, and many other physiological functions

14

what two things make the epidermis stronger?

1. desmosomes- link the epidermis together
2. manufacture of keratonin (which is a tough fiborous protein)- makes the epidermis less subject to mechanical stress

15

Describe the stratum basale layer.

-closest cells to blood supply in dermis; therefore most metabolically and mitotically active cells in epidermis
-in vitamin D synthesis and replacement of dead keratinocytes
-cells in this layer are alive and dividing

16

describe the stratum spinosm

-thickest layer
-sits on top of stratum basale so still close to blood supply
-also metabolically and mitotically active cells= alive

17

describe the stratum granulosum

-filled with keratin bundles or a lipid-based substance;
-both secreted by exocytosis
-cells slowly begin to die in this layer

18

describe the stratum lucidum

-narrow layer of clear, dead keratinocytes;
-found only in thick skin extra protective layer

19

describe the stratum corneum

– outermost layer of epidermis; consists of several layers of dead flattened keratinocytes with thickened plasma membranes; filled mostly with keratin bundles and little else

20

As keratinocytes in deeper strata divide, how do they get cells into superficial layers?

push cells above them into more superficial layers

21

How and where are keratinocytes replaced?

how: replaced by mitosis of cells
where: stratum basale and spinosum where blood supply is available for such activities

22

location and functions of epidermis subjects it to both physical and environmental stress; stratum corneum is continuously shedding dead cells that must be replaced to maintain integrity of epidermis; starts in basale then sheds in the corneum

keratonin life cycle

23

located in stratum spinosum; phagocytes of immune system; protect skin and deeper tissues from pathogens defense against invaders of deeper regions

lagerhans cells

24

in stratum basale; sensory (touch) receptors associated with small neurons in dermis:

mercel cells

25

stratum basale; produce melanin; protein skin pigment ranging from orange-red to brown-black

melanocytes

26

what's the diff between thick and thin skin?

Thick skin: has all five epidermal layers and a very thick stratum corneum; does not have hair follicles but contains many sweat glands
thin: stratum lucidum is missing; only 4 layers

27

highly vascular layer deep to epidermis

dermis

28

what is the function of the dermis? (3)

1. Provides blood supply for epidermis
2. Contains sensory receptors
3. Anchors epidermis in place

29

Papillary level

-thinner most superficial of two layers of dermis;
-Special collagen fibers are found in this layer at dermis-epidermal junction;
-extends into epidermal basement membrane to anchor epidermis to dermis

30

reticular layer. What's found in this layer?

-deep thicker layer that separates dermis from hypodermis
-Collagen bundles strengthen dermis and prevent traumatic injuries from damaging deeper tissues
-Elastic fibers allow dermis to return to its original shape and size after stretching
Found: Blood vessels, sweat glands, hairs, sebaceous glands, and adipose tissue are found in reticular layer

31

in dermal papillae; sensory receptors that respond to light touch stimuli; protects us

messners corpsules

32

sensory receptors that respond mainly to changes in pressure and vibration associated with skin

lamallated corpsules

33

small visible lines in epidermis created by interaction between dermis and epidermis; sweat pores help create these; best seen in hands and feet

skin markings

34

found in areas where dermal papillae are more prominent due to presence of thick collagen bundles

dermal ridges

35

what is responsible for skin markings associated with tension or lines; cleavage lines and flexure lines

reticular layer

36

Gaps found between collagen bundles in dermis create indentations in epidermis; particular pattern you find in the region of neck and trunk; circular in nature

tension

37

why should we follow tension lines?

On your arm your tension lines go up and down, so when u get a cut, if the cut also goes up and down it will lay closer together and heal faster

38

how do we determine skin color? where are these contained?

amount of melanin
contained in melanocytes in strato basale

39

function of melanin?

reduce synthesis of vitamin D

40

why do ppl in Africa have darker skin than ppl in the USA?

Individuals living in regions exposed to high amounts of UV radiation (such as Africa) may have developed darker skin to prevent excess vitamin D production

41

skin color depends on what?

Skin color depends on number of melanocytes found in a particular body region;

42

yellow-orange pigment found in food items such as egg yolks and orange vegetables (carrots, peaches, etc.)

carotene

43

found in red blood cells; transports oxygen throughout body; oxygen binds to the iron in this in an oxidation reaction; same reaction that causes iron to rust

hemoglobin

44

Hemoglobin’s effect on skin color is an indirect result of what?; color of blood in where is visible through epidermis

what: blood flow in dermis
where: deeper dermis

45

small filamentous structures that protrude from surface of skin over entire body except in regions with thick skin, lips, and parts of external genitalia

hair pilli

46

what are some appendages of the integumentary system?

Accessory structures or appendages of integument include hair, nails, and glands

47

this is too sparse in humans to play a significant role in thermoregulation, temp regulation in animals tho; protects us from uv, external substances getting in our bodies

hair

48

thin, nonpigmented hair found covering nearly entire body of a fetus; generally fall out around birth; replaced with one of two hair types

lanugo

49

thick, coarse, and pigmented hair; found surrounding eyes and on scalp; used for protection; replaces other type of hair after puberty

terminal

50

thin, nonpigmented; sparse and light; found in remaining regions of body

vellus

51

Hair color is largely determined by _____ produced in matrix by melanocytes; what type of hair has the most of this?

melanin
black hair= lot of melanin; blonde= not so much
when aging, we don't make as much melanin which is why our hair turns gray

52

form of chemical communication in apocrine gland

pharamones

53

most prevalent sweat gland; no association with hair; sweat, contains mostly water, waste products, and electrolytes; exits through sweat pores onto epidermal surface

eccrine sweat glands

54

sweat glad found in axillae, anal area, areola; produces body odor; influenced by sex hormones; pharamones

apocrine

55

sweat gland that releases cerumen into hair follicles in ear (ear wax); traps and lubricates incoming particles

ceruminous

56

sweat gland that produces modified sweat product: milk

mammary gland

57

this gland is branched with clusters of acini surrounded by small ducts; converge to form a central duct that empties into hair follicle or small pore; makes and secretes sebum

sebaceous gland
sebum production increases after puberty

58

where can you find the sebaceous gland?

everywhere besides palms and soles of feet

59

waxy, oily mixture of mostly lipids; released by holocrine secretion; secretory cells accumulate sebum until cell ruptures; first line of defense against bacteria

sebum

60

wound caused by agents such as heat, extreme cold, electricity, chemicals, and radiation; grouped into three classes according to extent and depth of tissue damage: difficult to manage b/c of dehydration and infection

burn

61

burn with Minor wounds that only damage epidermis;
Skin may develop erythema (red appearance) and some mild pain without any permanent damage

first degree burns

62

burn that Involves epidermis and part or all of dermis; Can result in pain, blistering, and scarring;

second degree

63

burn that's the Most damaging wounds; Involve epidermis, dermis, hypodermis; potentially even deeper tissue, like muscle or bone; Not generally painful at first because nerves are destroyed too

third degree burn

64

what is the rule of nines and how does it work?

-method to estimate how much of the body is affected by the burn

65

if more than ___% of your body is covered in a second degree burn than its critical. If more than ___% of your body is covered in a third degree burn than its critical.If there is any 3rd degree burn on the ___,____,___ it's coinsidered critical

2nd- 25
3rd- 10
face, hands, and feet