Chpter 1 Flashcards Preview

Human Anatomy and Physiology > Chpter 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpter 1 Deck (34):


study of structure or form of human body



study of body’s functions


list and expain 7 char of living organisms

1. cellular composition
-cells= basic. smalles unit of life; smallest unit tht can carry out life
-all orgs have 'em
2. Metabolism (collective chain of chem reactions)
-Chemicals – substances with unique molecular composition; used in or produced by chemical reactions
-can build up or break down substances based on needs of orgs
3. Growth
-where building outweighs breaking down processes, includes two forms:
Increase in size of individual cells
Increase in number of cells
4. Excretion – process that an organism uses to eliminate potentially harmful waste products created by metabolic processes
pee gets rid of ammonia
5.Responsiveness or irritability – ability of organisms to sense and react to changes or stimuli in their environment
6. Movement – ability of an entire organism to move or movement of individual cells or of materials within or between cells of an organism
7. Reproduction takes following two forms in multicellular organisms:
Individual cells reproduce within organism during growth and to replace damaged or old cells
Organism itself reproduces to yield similar offspring


Why don't we grow in our 20's?

cause our bodies have hit the maximum point of growth; our bodies can't grow anymore


Why do we take in oxygen?

-we take it in b/c electron transplant chain; mitochondria makes atp, food turns into atp, no oxygen, no energy


smallest level of structural organization

chem level
ranges from tiny atoms to complex chem structure called molecules


2nd level of structural organization

Cellular level – formed by groups of many different types of molecules combined in specific ways to form cellular structures


3 level of structural organization

Tissue level – two or more cell types cooperate to perform a common function
Consist of two components: cells and surrounding extracellular matrix
Vary from membrane sheets that cover body cavities to irregularly shaped cartilage found in nose


4 level of structural organization

Organ level – consists of two or more tissue types combined to form a structure or organ; has a recognizable shape and performs a specialized task


5 level of structural organization

Organ system level – body’s organs are grouped into organ systems
Consist of two or more organs that together carry out a broad function in body
For example
Cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels) transports blood through body
Digestive system ingests food, absorbs nutrients, and eliminates wastes


6 level of structural organization

.Organism level – organ systems function together to make up working human body, an organism


organ systems

Body’s organs are grouped into organ systems; consist of two or more organs that together carry out a broad function in body


How many organ systems does the boyd have?



What is the function of the organ systems?

Organs and organ systems work together to ensure survival of organism as a whole
Organ systems function together to make up complete organism (human body)


Organ system: Integumentary system

- protects the boyd from the exterior envornment
-produces vitamin d
-retains water
-regulates body temp
-hair, skin, nails


Organ system: skeletal system

-supports the body
-promotes internal organs
-provides leverage for movement
-produces blood cells
-stores calcium salts
bones, joints


organ system: muscular

-produces movement
-controls body openings
--generates heat
skeletal muscles


organ system: nervous

-regulates body functions
-provides for sensation, movement, automatic functions, and higher mental functions via nerve impulses
nerves, spinal cords, brain


Organ system: endocrine

-regulates body functions
-regulates the functions of muscles, glands and other tissues through the secretion of chemicals called hormones
ovaries (females), testes (male), pancreas, adrenal gland, thymus gland, thyroid gland, pituitary gland, hypothalamas, pineal gland


organ system: cardiovascular

pumps and delivers oxygen poor blood into the lungs and oxygen rich blood into the tissues
removes wastes from the tissues
transports cells, nutrients, and other substances
heart, blood vessels


organ system: lymphatic

returns excess ttissue fluid to cardiovascular system
provides immunity (protection against diseases)
tonsils, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, lymphatic vessels


organ system: respitory system

delivers oxygen to the blood
removes carbon dioxide from the boyd
maintains the acid base balance of blood
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs


organ system: digestive

absorbs nutrients
digests food
removes food waste
regulates fluid, electrolytes, and acid base balance
mouth, salavary glands, esophagus, liver, stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, large intestines, small intestines


organ system: urinary

removes metabolic waste from the blood
regulates blood, electrolyte, and acid base balance, stimulates blood cell production
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra


organ system: reproductive (male)

produces and transports sperm
secretes hormones
sexual function
prostate glands, ductus deferends, testis, penis


organ system: reproductive (female)

produces and transports eggs
site of fetal develpment, fetal nourishment, childbirth, and lactation
secretes hormones
sexual function
mammary glands, uterine tube, ovary, uterus, vagina


How do cells communicate?

cells communicate to coordinate body functions
Usually accomplished with either chemical messengers or electrical signals; one cell triggers a response from another cell
Electrical signals are usually transmitted between neighboring cells; chemical messengers can affect neighboring cells or travel to distant cells to cause effect



Gradient – present any time more of something exists in one area than another, where two areas are connected (there's more of something in one spot than another)
Gradients drive many physiological processes
temp gradient, concentration and pressure


What are homeostatic imbalances and how can we prevent them?

HI- imbalances in homeostasis that can lead to disease or death if not corrected
prevented by controlling most regulated variables; maintained within a narrow range, close to a normal value


Serous membrance

Thin sheets of tissue; form certain cavities found in ventral cavity; surround heart, lungs, and many abdominal organs


serous fluid

Prevents friction caused by movement of organs

Within cavity between two layers is an extremely thin layer of fluid called serous fluid
Watery, slippery lubricant
Fills space between membrane layers
Produced by cells of membrane


What are they two layers of the serous membrane? (define both)

visceral layer- (inner) in contact with underlying organ
Parietal layer- (outer) – outermost layer attached to surrounding structures


peritoneal cavity

Peritoneal cavity – abdominal subcavity found within serous membrane


Whats a cavity? (def and function)

A cavity is any fluid-filled space within body; axial region of body is divided into several cavities
Cavities protect internal organs and allow them to move and expand as necessary to perform their functions