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Flashcards in Chapter 4 Deck (61):
1

study of normal structures of tissues (a group of structurally and functionally related cells and their external environment that together perform common functions); all tissues share two basic components:

Histology

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tightly packed sheets of cells with no visible ECM; cover and line all body surfaces and cavities; specialized epithelia form glands that manufacture secretions such as sweat, saliva, or chemical messengers called hormones

epitheleal tissue

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connect all other tissues in body to one another; ECM is a prominent feature for most connective tissue types with cells scattered throughout; bind, support, protect, and allow for transportation of substances; most common

connective tissue

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capable of generating force by contracting; little ECM between cells and always pull

muscle tissue

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consist of cells capable of generating, sending, receiving messages, and cells that support this activity all within a unique ECM

nervous tissue

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composed of substances in a liquid, thick gel, or solid that surround cells of a tissue; consist of two main components, ground substance and protein

extracellular matrix (ECM)

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embedded within ground substance; long molecules composed of multiple fibrous subunits with a ropelike structure; enormous tensile strength

protein fibers

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three protein fiber types are found within ECM?

collagen (largest), elastic (stretch and snap back), reticular fibers (smallest special type of collage fibers; lymphnodes with a lot of red blood cells)

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composed of protein elastin surrounded by glycoproteins; extensibility allows fiber to stretch up to one and a half times resting length without breaking; once stretched, fibers return to resting length (called elasticity)

elastic fibers

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thin, short collagen fibers; form a meshwork or scaffold that supports cells and ground substance of many tissues; form a weblike structure in organs like spleen that help trap foreign cells

reticular fibers

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make up 20–25% of all proteins in body; composed of multiple repeating subunits that form a white fibrous protein; resistant to tension (pulling and stretching forces) and pressure

collagen fibers

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another way cells bind to one another where neighboring cell’s plasma membranes are linked by integral proteins

cell junctions

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list 3 types of cell junctions

tight junctions, desosomes, gap junctions

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type of cell junction that hold cells closely together such that space between is impermeable to movement of macromolecules

tight junctions
Example – found between cellsin blood vessels; prevent bloodfrom exiting vessels

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type of cell junction that is composed of linking integral proteins; allow for materials in extracellular fluid to pass through space between cells; holds cell together; evenly distributed; in epithelia (skin); mechanical stress

desosomes

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type of cell junction that is a bunch of small pores formed by protein channels between adjacent cells that allow small substances to flow freely between each cell’s cytoplasm; binds by electrical signals; cardiac muscle; direct communication

gap junctions

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Since this is avascular, it gets nutrients from diffusion; made of tight junctions and desosomes; the ECM in this is underneath the basement membrane; glues this and the connective tissue together

epithelial tissue

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what makes up the basement membrane

basal lamina
reticular lamina

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very thin single layer of cells with a “fried egg” appearance; rapid diffusion; lines blood vessels and the heart

simple squamous epithelium

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single layer of cube-shaped cells with large central nucleus; lines glands

simple cuboidal epithelium

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single layer of rectangular-shaped cells with nuclei located in basal portion of cell; the microvilli or the cilia can be found here

simple columnar epithelium

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appears to be layered because nuclei are found at various heights, but only one cell-layer thick with basal plasma membranes firmly in contact with basement membrane; found in segments of respiratory tract and nasal cavity; ciliated

pseudostratified clumnar epithelium

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more than one layer of cells; best suited as protective barriers in locations subjected to high degrees of mechanical stress

stratified epithilium

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no nucleus; dead cells; tough, resistant to friction, and durable; outer layer of the skin;

keratonized stratified squamous epithelium

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nucleus; cells are alive; found in moist areas with friction (mouth, vagina, etc.)

nonkeratonized stratified squamous epithelium

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rare in humans, consists of two cell layers and lines ducts of sweat glands; common site in glands

stratified cuboidal epithelium

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rare inn hhumans; few layers; apical layer= columnal, basal= cyboidal; in ducts of glands; offers protection

statified columnar epithelium

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only in urinary system; can flatten which causes urinary tissues to stretch; basal cell layers are cuboidal while apical cell layers are dome-shaped when tissue is relaxed

transitional epithelium

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structure of epithelial origin that synthesizes and secretes a product from designated secretory cells

glands

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what can be classified either by their shape or by how they release products

glands

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lines blood vessels in the heart

endothelium

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makes up portion of serous membrane that line abdominal cavity and cover organs

mesothilium

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release products onto apical surfaces of epithelium located on external surface of body or lining a hollow organ that opens to outside of body

exocrine glands (that and endocrine make chemicals to communicate)

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secrete their products, usually hormones, directly into the bloodstream without the use of ducts

endocrine glands

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most common unicellular exocrine gland; secretes mucus

goblet cells

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how are Multicellular glands classified?

according to structure of their ducts and shape of clusters of secretory cells

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list and describe the 3 possible secretory cell configuration

tubular (long and straight or coiled), acinar (spherical), or tubuloacinar (with both tubular and acinar sections)

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secretory cells package products in secretory vesicles for release by exocytosis into ducts; most common; and pumps objects out

merocrine

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what're the 2 methods Exocrine glands use for secreting products

merocrine and holocrine

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used by sebaceous gland in skin to secrete sebum; within oil producing organs; manufacture products until the cell has burst; only release product when cell ruptures and dies

holocrine

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coumpoud asinar glands

mamary

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simple tubular

sweat

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what are the functions of connective tissues? (4)

connecting and binding, support, and protection, tranport

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cells that are found in the connective tissue, are incased in a ________, that is produced by a particular connective tissue cell

nonliving ECM

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mostly ground substance, with all three types of protein fibers, fibroblasts, and occasionally adipocytes, suspended in ground substance; binding and supporting everything in body; lots of space; matrix and fibers; ground substance

loose connective tissue

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three classifications of dense connective tissue?

- dense irregular
-dense regular
- dense regular elastic

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composed of retric fibers; forms part of basement membrane

reticular tissue

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composed of adipocytes (fat sacs); storage of energy reserve; insulation; shock absorption

adipose

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most abundant; glassy; surronding bones in joint; nonliving matrix

cartiledge

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filled with bundles of collagen fiber

fibrocartiledge

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found in ear and epigladis

elastic cartiledge

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made up of 65% calcium; osteoblasts; can get calcium out of bone to help the rest of the body; capable of remodeling

bone

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what cell type froms the haversian system

osteoblasts

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blood

matrix= fluid

55

which 2 muscle tissues are striated?

Skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue are striated while smooth muscle tissue is not

56

found mostly attached to skeleton where its contraction produces body movement; voluntary or conscious control; multinucleic

skeletal muscle tissue

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found only in the heart; striated; this tissue is involuntary; brain does not have conscious control over its contraction; cells are short and branched; uninucleic

cardiac muscle tissue

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Found in walls of nearly every hollow organ, blood vessels, eyes, skin, and ducts of certain glands; contractions are involuntary; with one centrally located ovoid nucleus; plasma membranes of neighboring cells are linked together by gap junctions

smooth muscle tissue

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makes up majority of brain, spinal cord, and nerves; composed of two main cell types and their surrounding ECM irritable- can react to stimuli in enviorment and send that respond to other cells

nervous tissue

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capable of sending and receiving messages

Neurons (and neurologlial cells of nervous tissue that surrond ECM)

61

perform various functions that support neuron activities; they do not transport electrical impulses

Neuroglial cells