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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (41):
1

what are bones made up of

-osseous tissue
- dense regular and irregular collagenous connective tissue as well as bone marrow- red (homocoeic tissue) and yellow (fat storage)

2

what are the 6 functions of the skeletal system?

1. protection
2. mineral storage and acid-base homeostasis
3. blood cell formation
4. fat storage
5. movement
6. support

3

this bone structure is longer than it is wide; ex: humerous

long bone

4

this bone structure is as long as it is wide; ex: wrist and ankle bones

short bone

5

this bone structure is thin and broad bones; ex: pelvis, sternum

flat bones

6

this bone structure is doesn't fit in the other classes; ex: vertebrae and skull

irregular bones

7

this bone structure is flat, round; w/in tendon; ex: patella/ knee cap

sesamoid bones

8

in a long bone and forms a covering, rich with blood vessels and nerves; surrounds outer surface of long bones

periosterum

9

anchors periosteum firmly to underlying bone surface by penetrating deep into bone matrix

perforating fibers (slide 17)

10

shaft of the long bone

diaphysis

11

end of long bone

epiphysis

12

marrow cavity contains what?

either red or yellow bone marrow, depending on bone and age of individua

13

hard, dense outer region that allows bone to resist linear compression and twisting forces among other stresses outside

compact bone

14

honeycomb-like framework of bony struts; allows long bones to resist forces from many directions; provides a cavity for bone marrow middle of bone

spongy bone

15

Bony struts of spongy bone and all inner surfaces of bone are covered by a thin membrane

called endosteum

16

found separating both proximal and distal epiphyses from diaphysis

epiphseal lines

17

Blood supply to short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid bones is provided mostly by vessels in where?

periosteum

18

Long bones get a third of their blood supply from where?; mostly supplies compact bone

periosteum

19

Remaining two-thirds (in long bone) is supplied by what?;

one or two nutrient arteries

20

what is found in the ends of long bone in epandageous; in femur, sternum, hip, and humerous; replaced by yellow marrow

red blood marrow

21

who has more red blood marrow a child or an adult?

Children need more red marrow to assist in their growth and development
; amount of red blood marrow decreases w age

22

what is composed of triglycerides, blood vessels, and adipocytes

yellow blood marrow

23

substance in inorganic matrix

hydroxypatetie

24

predominant protein fiber; forms cross-links with one another; helps bone resist torsion (twisting) and tensile (pulling or stretching) forces

collagen

25

describe how osteoblasts turn into osteocytes

1. osteogenic cells differenciate into osteoblasts
2. osteoblasts deposit bone until they are trapped until they become osteocytes
3. Osteocytes maintain bone ECM

26

Each osteon contains between 4 and 20 lamellae arranged in layered ring structures also known as this; rings of hard, calcified, intercellular substance

concentric lamallae (another way to say lamallae)

27

in the osteon structure a endosteum-lined hole found in center of each osteon where blood vessels and nervesreside to supply bone

central canal (haversian canal)

28

Osteocytes reside in where?

lacunae
small cavities found between lamellae; filled with extracellular fluid

29

in the osteon structure a Neighboring lacunae are connected to one another by a network of small passageways or canals in matrix called what?

canaliculi

30

Are remnants of concentric or circumferential lamellae that were partially removed during bone remodeling or after osteoclasts.

interstitial lamallae

31

Lamellae wrapped around the long bone; Bind osteons together; part of appositional growth

circumferential lamallae

32

originate from blood vessels in periosteum and travel at right angles (perpendicular) to central canals of osteons; through which the blood vessels and
nerves from the periosteum penetrate the compact bone.

perforating canals (valkmans canals)

33

usually not weight-bearing like compact bone so is much less densely packed; Provide a protective structure for bone marrow tissue

spongy bone

34

This begins in embryonic period and continues through childhood with most bones completing the process by age 7; Process of bone formation is called what

ossification or osteogenesis;

35

Bones formed by what are built on a model (starting material) made of a membrane of embryonic connective tissue

intramembranous ossification

36

Bones formed by what are built on a model of hyaline cartilage; most common

endochondral ossification

37

dermal layers thicken can produce select bones; found in bones on face;

Dermal intramembranous formation-

38

when bones grow in width its called

appositional growth

39

concentric rings of bone matrix. This gives compact bone a great deal of strength like a tree's rings.

lamallae

40

multinuclei; special enzymes and acids w/in them; break fown osteon itself to provide necessary ions to keep body functioning

osteoclasts

41

Long bones lengthen by a process called

longitudinal growth