Chapter 2: Pet Foods (Hill) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Pet Foods (Hill) Deck (75):
1

Main types of pet foods *

-dry
-canned/pouch
-soft-moist
-supplements and treats
-home-made: raw and cooked

2

treats should comprise what percent of diet? *

10%

3

dry pet foods must have less than what percent moisture by AAFCO definitions? *

20% (most have ~10%)

4

canned/pouch food what percent moisture? *

>65% (most have 75-80%)

5

which kind of food is generally lowest in fat? *

dry

6

____ food usually has higher fat/protein than dry food *

canned/pouch

7

soft moist food what percent moisture? *

20-65% (most have 30%)

8

humectants (i.e. sorbitol) are commonly added to: fx? *

soft moist foods. Fx = Bind water to prevent spoilage

9

p food market categories *

-popular (national brands)
-premium (therapeutic/life stage)
-generic (local)
-supplements/treats
-therapeutic/life stage
-raw/home-cooked

First 3 are generally complete and balanced

10

disadvantages of home made diets *

-usually deficient in essential nutrients
-animals pick/choose
-time consuming
-not tested on animals

11

danger of uncooked foods *

-often contain pathogens
-often unbalanced
-not good to feed to young, old, pregnant, sick
-no "only raw" nutrient
-public health risk

12

DSHEA = *

dietary supplement health and education act.
-restricted FDA's authority in humans
- "implied consent" for increased use in animals but not generally recognized as safe in pet food

13

neutroceuticals and food additivies have variable: *

quality, consistency, absorbability, and potency

14

T or F: health claims are not allowed for p neutraceut. and food additives *

True

15

general marketing strategy for pet foods *

increase # of brnads = increased shelf space = increased market share

16

2 other common p food marketing strategies *

anthropomorphism, niche targeting

17

p food is regulated on the federal/state/both level? *

both

18

AAFCO = ? What are its duties? *

association of american feed control officials.
-Reviews labels and sets standards (definitions of feed ingredients, min/max recommendations, testing procedures, etc.)
-Does NOT make/enforce laws.
-A consultatory body only; each state can choose whether or not to follow its recommendations

19

What is "meat"? *

striated muscle from skeletal, heart, diaphragm, or esophagus

20

what are "meat by-products"? *

spleen, liver, kidney, bone, blood, fat, intestine

21

what is "meat by-product meal"? *

meat by-product that has been rendered to remove fat

22

What is required in the guaranteed analysis? *

crude protein/fat/fiber, moisture

23

what is NOT required in the guaranteed analysis (but often is)? *

ash, carbohydrate

24

ingredient list is ordered by: *

weight

25

which state is the most strict about enforcement of feed regulations? *

Texas

26

Dry foods are generally energy dense and inexpensive *

:)

27

decreased water content --> palatability

decreases

28

problem with using propylene glycol as a humectant

causes oxidative damage to RBCs and a Heinz body anemia in cats

29

therapeutic and life stage diets are considered ____ brands *

premium

30

why should you not add vitamins/minerals to commercial pet foods? *

unbalance a balanced diet! May lead to toxicity

31

When may addition of vitamins/minerals to diet be indicated?

-balance a home-cooked diet
-pharm. action
-in some obese dogs w/ low energy requirements

32

exces liver fed to cats --->

vitamin A toxicosis

33

nutritional hyperparathyroidism is caused by: **

feeding too much meat which contains too little Ca. Lowers Ca:P ratio and results in Ca leaching from bones and pathologic fractures

34

adding additional Ca to diet of growing dogs --->

osteochondrosis

35

basic ingredients of home-made diets

protein, carb, and fat sources, multivitamin, potassium, dicalcium phosphate or bone meal

36

home-cooked food should comprise less than ___ percent of the diet

10%

37

BARF diet

bones and raw food (mimics "wild" diet)

38

4D meat

raw meat product of dead, diseased, dying, or down animals at time of slaughter

39

dogs are carnivores/omnivores?

omnivores

40

T or F: salmonellsa is regularly isolated from animal AND vegetable components of animal feed

T

41

Alabama rot

disease of E. coli in racing greyhounds. Causes vasculitis, cutaneous necrosis, renal failure, and death.

42

Aujesky's virus infection

(pseudorabies). Lethal dz in dogs/cats from consuimg infected pork

43

disadvantages of bones

-esophageal obstruction
-obstipation (colonic impaction)

44

Drug

substance other than food intended to affect structure or function of body or to treat or prevent dz

45

feed additive

ingredient added to fulfull a need, not GRAS and not nutrient, usually microquantities. (ex-preservatives, anitbiotics)

46

neutraceutical/functional food

nutrient with drug like character

47

herb

plant valued for medicinal properties

48

____ reduces the risk of one food being accidentally deficient

variety

49

*meat alone can't constitute a balanced diet without viscera*

:)

50

T or F: there is no evidence that any preservatives are detrimental to animal health

T

51

T or F: several recipes may be used for each brand name

T

52

most pet foods are more than ___% digestible

80%

53

most pet food recalls are for:

Salmonella

54

melamine

recalled in 2007. An inexpensive protein source that auses uroliths

55

proprietary diet

attempts to deliver average nutrients midway b/w max and min requirements est. in normal animals

56

crude fiber is a good/bad measure of fiber content *

bad

57

"Natural" =

no chemically synthesized ingredients besides vitamins minerals and trace nutrients

58

Is "organic" defined?

Yes, by USDA

59

Is "holistic" defined?

No

60

"human edible"

product that is legally suitable and approved for consumption by a person (USDA, FDA)

61

Principle display panel includes:

-manufacterer's name/address
-brand name
-product name
-designator (i.e. "for cats")
- net weight
-product vignette (picture)

62

Information panel includes:

-nutritional adequacy claim (required for all foods except treats/snacks)
-ingredient list
-guaranteed analysis
-manufacterer/distributor name/address
-feeding directions
-calorie content
-comparison claims (i.e. low calorie)
-other claims (i.e. "organic")

63

For comparison claims, "less or reduced calorie or fat" must state:

% reduction and product to which the comparison is made in same processing group

64

"beef"

>70% total product

65

"beef dinner"

>10% total product

66

"with beef" or "and beef"

>3% of ingredient excluding water

67

"beef flavor"

recognizable by pet

68

"stew" "in gel" "in gravy" "in aspic"

>78% water

69

Uniform State Feed Bill and Regulations

permits manufacturers to develop one label for use in all 50 states

70

adulturated food

food containing noxious substance or lacking essential nutrient

71

misbranded food

with false or misleading label or missing required info

72

The sale of p food is regulated by:

FDA, Dept. of Ag.
(ADVISORY committee = AAFCO)

73

Federal Trade Commission

regulates advertising including labels, prohibits false statements

74

The Fair Packaging and Labeling Act

defines size and location of info on label

75

USDA

regulations requires statement "animal (dog/cat) food" to distinguish from human food