Chapter 8 (pt.1): Other Nutrients (Hill) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 (pt.1): Other Nutrients (Hill) Deck (70):
0

water maintenance for dogs and cats

1ml/lb/hr or 50ml/kg/day for dogs and cats

assumes ~ 1/2 ml/lb/hr insensible losses and ~1/2 ml/lb/hr urine production

increases with activity ~ 1ml/kcal is good estimate for all species

1

shock from water in dogs cats

50 in cat 90 in dog ml/kg/hr for 1 hr

puppies and kittens: double adult requirement

2

rehydration

~2-5 x maintenance for 24-48 hours

3

minerals

carefully regulated so changes in blood concentration of nutrients are frequently associated with metabolic disease and not nutrient deficiencies.

blood concentrations of nutrients can be normal in the face of severe nutritional depletion

4

what minerals are deficient in Fl forages

Zn, Cu and Selenium

manganese might be as well but hard to test

5

are mineral and vitamin supplements necessary in cats and dogs?

no not if they are on a standard commercial diet

6

incipient

active ingredient

7

excipient

binders, colorants, palatability enhancer like protein and fat

8

home cooked diets require supplementation with:

multivitamin/trace minerals
calcium
phosphorus

9

Ca and P sources

legumes contain adequate Ca
cereal grains and grass hays need Ca supplementation

10

where can you get Calcium carbonate

limestone

11

where can you get calcium phosphate

bone meal

12

where can you get Ca acetate

"phoslo" a very soluble and potent phosphate binder

13

Ca and P requirements

they are the principle components of ash in guaranteed analysis
Ca: P ratio should be between 1:1 and 2:1

14

when are abnormalities of blood calcium seen?

Ca and P are well regulated and bone stores are large so the only time you should see abnormalities are associated with disease

15

Eclampsia

hypocalcemia observed in dogs around parturtiion leading to tetanus, seizures and poor uterine contraction, and prolong QT interval on EKG

tx: 10% Ca gluconate and stop pups from suckling

16

Calcium deficiency

signs of deficiency are primarily associated with bone resorption (Rickets)

dogs and cats fed all meat diets may receive little Ca and get nutritional hyperparathryoidism and osteoporosis.

lack of natural sunlight and subsequent hypovitaminosis D results in nutritional hyperparathyroidism in REPTILES

17

P deficiency

hypophosphatemia is primarily observed in starved animals following the reintroduction of food or in diabetics.

signs: low ATP, hi red cell fragility, anemia, hemorrhage and neurological signs

--> insulin causes increased use of P for the phosphorylated intermediates of glycolysis so incipient hypophosphatemia can exacerbate too rapid administrationof glucose or insulin

18

when are abnormalities of blood Na and K usually seen?

they are well regulated and usually only associated with disease

19

Salt deficiency

absence of salt in diet can cause: low palatability and appetitie, low growth and low efficiency of feed utilization

signs: hyponatremia includes nausea, inappetence, if rapid in onset can cause osmotic swelling of hte brain and may cause neurologic signs similar to salt poisoning

20

salt toxicity

salt poisoning (pigs) and hypernatremia and hyperosmolality (dogs) can occur if water is restricted following feeding of high salt diets

signs: neurological. the brain becomes hyperosmotic so that it attracts water by osmosis and swells when drinking resumes

21

hypokalemia

signs are of irregular cardiac rhythm, flat T waves and in cats muscle weakness, persistent ventroflexion of the neck, increased CPK.

22

in what animal and condition is hypokalemia common?

in cats with renal failure because of increased renal losses

23

hyperkalemia

usually secondary to metabolic disease
- ace inhibitors with excess intake

signs: muscle weakness, irregular cardiac rhythm, peaked T waves, prolonged QRS and PR intervals

24

sulfur sources

sulfur containing amino acids (methionine, cystine, taurine)
vitamins (thiamin, biotin)

25

sulfur requirements

ruminants require sulfur for protein synthesis when urea is used as nitrogen source. excess contributes to inhibition of Cu absorption

birds use sulfate to synthesize taurine

sheep wool contains substantial amounts of sulfur

sulfur plays a role in large intestinal fermentation

26

Fe sources

iron filings: <1% absorbed

iron oxide (rust) is used as a red colorant and causes red stool if included in too great an excess

ferrous sulfate and ferrous carbonate (both 10 - 20% absorbable)

haem iron: 30 - 50% available

27

which minerals compete for absorption sites

Cu, Mn, Zn, Co, Cd

Cu-M, Z, Co, Cd <-- sounds funny - a way to remember?

28

which is more absorable: ferrous (Fe 2+) or ferric (Fe3+)?

ferrous (Fe2+)

29

what promotes absorption?

reducing agents (like ascorbic acid)

30

when is absorption increased? decreased?

increased = deficient animals

decreased = replete animals

31

what inhibits absorption

phytates and vegetable proteins inhibit absorption

like soy protein or fiber

32

what are some iron containing compounds?

oxygen carriers: hemoglobin and myoglobin

oxidation-reduction enzymes: cytochromes

transport: transferrin

storage: ferritin, hemosiderin

33

Fe deficiency

signs: microcytic hypochromic anemia, thrombocytosis

primarily due to chronic blood loss (think parasites)

-young kittens exhibit evidence of iron deficiency

34

hemochromatosis

found in: mynahs, birds of paradise and toucans

signs: mostly seocndary to accumulation of Fe in the liver causing fibrosis, hepatomegaly, ascites, weight loss and dyspnea, hi liver enzymes

tx: symptomatic or phlebotomy

35

iodine: function

exclusively in thyroid hormones

36

iodine sources

deficiency is observed where soils are deficient in center of continents away from sea

- seaweed and kelp contain large amounts
- eggs and milk
- cereal and muscle contain a little

37

iodine content in pet foods

is unknown and possibly of wide variation. this has led to the hypothesis that oscillating exposure to iodine may contribute to the induction of hyperthyroidism in cats

38

iodine deficiency

- goiter
- deficiency of intake like in seed eating birds

signs: decreased metabolic rate, growth, poor hair coat, decreased reproduction

39

iodine toxicity

suppresses thyroid acitvity and also causes goiter

40

Cu sources

most foods but especially legumes and shell fish

Cu sulfate and Cu oxide are added to pet foods

41

Cu absorption

Zn and Cd compete with Cu in binding of metallothionein

transport in plasma bound to ceruloplasmin

thiomolybdates and phytates inhibit absorption

liver is main storage organ

42

what inhibits Cu absorption

phytates and thiomolybdates

43

Cu function:

- hemoglobin synthesis
- melanin formation
- crosslinking collagen and elastin in CT
- formation of tight junctions
- myelin formation

44

Cu deficiency

may cause dilated cardiomyopathy in cats fed Cu oxide instead of Cu sulfate

45

signs of Cu deficiency

- microcytic anemia
- ataxia in lambs
- cardiomyopathy
- lack of pigmentation causing grey spectacles around the eyes

46

Cu toxicity

cattle and sheep exposed to contaminated pastures accumulate Cu in the liver which is rapidly released during stress to produce an acute hemolytic crisis, anemia and hemoglobinuria.
- keep Cu <100ppm
- avoid using non-ruminant blocks for small ruminants because sheep are very sensitive to Cu poisoning

47

Wilson's disease or hepatic copper toxicosis: seen in what breed

Bedlington terriers
- genetic defect of Cu metabolism

tx: d-penicillamine which chelates copper and Zn sulfate wwhich competes with Cu for absorption

48

Zn sources

shell fish, meat, leafy vegetables and whole grains

less available in cereal grains

refined carbs are poor sources

49

Zn absorption

inhibited by phytates, soybean meal, Ca

competition between Zn and Cu

50

Zn functions:

metalloenzymes

stabilizing membranes

51

*Zn deficiency in dogs*

fed high fiber, high Ca generic dog foods

huskies, malamutes, and rapidly growing dogs until puberty develop hyperkeratotic plaques around mucocutaneous junctions which respond to Zn supplementation

52

signs of Zn deficiency

- poor apetite, low growth, poor bone, egg shell and feather formation

- poor fertility and small testicles

- parakeratosis

- decreased immune funciton

53

Zn toxicity

- hemolytic anemia is described in dogs which have swallowed pennies minted after 1983 because they are mostly Zn.

can cause acute pancreatitis

54

Molybdneum sources

legumes and cereals

liver, kidney and milk

55

excess Molybdenum and signs of it

interferes with Cu and Su metabolism

signs: anorexia and weight loss, diarrhea and poor reproduction

56

molbdenum function via metalloenzymes

xanthine oxidase
hydroxylases

57

Manganese sources

manganese sulfate and oxide

58

manganese function

mucopolysaccharide synthesis

enzymes pyruvate carboxylase (glycolysis) and superoxide dismutase

59

manganese deficiency

rare except for chicken

will get perosis or "slipped tendon" when Achilles' tendons slips off its condyle

low growth, bone malformation, curvature of spine and swollen joints

60

Selenium sources

soil via plants

hi in meat and fish

AAFCO min should be increased because of low bioavailability

61

Selenium function

antioxidant in conjunction with vitamin E

62

Selenium deficiency

lambs, calves and foals: white muscle disease

pigs: liver necrosis, and mulberry heart disease

poultry: exudative diathesis

63

Selenium toxicity

when > 5ppm

acute: respiratory distress, diarrhea, death

subacute: "blind staggers" - stumbling paralysis, impaired vision, abdominal pain, etc.

chronic: "alkali disease" - low vitality, loss of hair, sloughing of hooves, lameness, etc.

64

Cobalt metabolism

- essential part of vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
- B12 synthesized from cobalt by intestinal bacteria in ruminants

65

cobalt deficiency

common on certain pastures in Florida

causes unthriftiness, lacrimation, anemia

66

Cobalt supplementation

not needed in monogastrics

feed Co containing mineral blocks designed for ruminants

67

Chromium sources

whole grains, spices, stainless steel

dairy products and veg. sources are low

68

function of chromium

insulin potentiation

69

Vanadium function

mimics action of insulin, affects iodine (thyroid) metabolism