Chapter 5: Nutrient Requirements (Hill) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Nutrient Requirements (Hill) Deck (23):
1

optimum performance occurs: *

in the plateau between the "goal posts"

2

How have most minima been established? *

by using growth as a parameter of performance

3

5 things that can inhibit absorption of trace minerals *

Ca, fiber, phytate, soy protein, tannins. Therefore, diets that contain more of these must contain higher concentrations of trace minerals to compensate

4

minimum protein requirement is often higher/lower than in young adult dogs

higher

5

NRC recommendations are based on:

-assumed purified ingredients
-min. req. based on deprivation and toxicity studies

6

AAFCO recommendations are based on:

-assumed normal pet food ingredients (non-purified)
-minimums increased from NRC recs
-primarily min. reqs.

7

Minimum requirement (MR) *

minimal concentration/amount of bioavailable nutrient that will support a defined physiological state ("demonstrated not to have problems")

8

Adequate Intake (AI) *

concentration/amt. of a nutrient which have been demonstrated to support a defined phys. state when no MR has been demonstrated ("we don't know but this amount didn't have problems")

9

recommended allowance (RA) *

conc./amt. of a nutrient in a diet formulated to support a defined physiological state. (MR or AI) + Safety factor

10

safe upper limit (SUL) *

maximal concentration/amt. of a nutrient that has not been assoc. with adverse effects. May or may not be demonstrated

11

amount per kg and amt. per 1000 kcal ME (2 methods of presenting requirements) are/are not comparable when energy density changes

are not

12

3 methods of presenting nutritional requirements *

1) per kg diet
2) per 1000 kcal ME (best method!) **
3) per kg W^0.75 (dogs) or per kg W^0.75 (cats)

1 and 2 not comparable in different physiological states

13

T or F: large dogs have similar requirements as small dogs relative to metabolic body weight

T. (except for Ca in large growing dogs)

14

low/moderate/high fat as %ME

low: 40% ME

15

very low/low/mod/high protein as %ME

very low: 30

16

u/d and s/d diets have very low:

protein, phosphorus

17

safety factor *

amt. that needs to be in the food to meet requirements

18

Important ratios *

-Ca:P
-Vit. E: unsaturated fat (E keets fat from oxidizing)
-n3:n6 fats
-Cations: anions (more anions = more acid in urine)

19

There is no SUL for *

Mg. In cats, urine pH more important. In dogs, struvite caused by infections

20

3 things that increase absorption of trace minerals *

meat poultry, fish, vit. C

21

How can you maintain nutrient intake as energy intake decreases?

increase nutrient density

22

illness/physiological stress --> goal posts

can alter their location/range

23

T or F: digestibility and availability vary little except in what kind of diets?

high fiber, generic diets