Chapter 9: The Cat Is Unique (Hill) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9: The Cat Is Unique (Hill) Deck (27):

the cat is a pure carnivore and adapted to what?

high protein, high fat, low carbdiet


teh cat needs a continuous supply of what nutrients:

retinol, niacin, taurin, and arachidonic acid

little glutamate and benzoic acid


why do cats have a high protein requirement?

they are unable to down regulate the enzymes which degrade amino acids


arginine in cats

what does deficiency cause?

is essential because its an integral part of the urea cycle

deficiency causes: hyperammonemia due to:

decreased ornithine synthesis from glutamate and proline due to decreased activity of pyrroline-5-carboxylase

decreased citrulline synthesis because less ornithine amino transferase and carbomyl phosphate synthetase activity


sulfur containing AA's

increased requirement for them so methionine is usually the limiting amino acid



unique AA only found in cat urine - not needed in diet


adaptions to low carb diet:

no glucokinase in liver, so liver does not homeostatically control blood glucose.

blood glucose increases easily in response to stress
cannot taste sweetness

amylase activity is low and increased activity is not induced by increased carb in the diet

gluconeogenesis is switched on all the time even in cats fed a high protein diet


arachidonic acid

CONDITIONALLY ESSENTIAL - because its only essential for reproduction in cats

cats lack delta-6 desaturase so are unable to synthesize arachidonic acid from linoleic acid and therefore either need arachidonic acid or gamma-linoleic acid in the diet.


Vitamin A

unable to be synthesized in cats because they can't use carotene because they lack the dioxygenase enzyme


Vitamin D

required because reduced synthesis of precursor in skin



cats are unable to use tryptophan as a precursor of niacin. reflects increased proteind egradation


what two intolerances are indicative of heavy protein diets and low veggie diets?

glutamate and benzoic acid intoleraance


taurine structure

resembles alanine except:

taruine has a sulfonyl group and AA resides on the beta carbon


taurine function

most common Sulfur containing AA
- conjugates with bile acids in the liver
- lipophobic (diffuses poorly through intact membranes)
- may play a role in osmoregulation (present in cells without cell walls)
- modulate interaction between Ca and phospholipids
- antioxidant


taurine deficiency

central retinal degeneration and blindness
poor repro
increased collagen-induced platelet aggregation
reversible dilated cardiomyopathy


taurine metabolism

synthesized from methionine and cystein so not essential in most mammals


why is taurine essential in the cat

decreased synthesis of taurine from cystein

bile acids conjugated with taurine instead of glycine


in what species is taurine conditionally essential in perinatal period?



diagnosis of taurine levels

plasma taurine concentration

whole blood taurine concentration


bioavailability of taurine

purified diets > dry > canned

decreased by heat processing

increased fecal losses with soy-bbased diets


can cats have vegetarian diets

yes though they are difficult to formulate and needs purified substances found only in animal kingdom like arachidonic acid and retinol


can cats eat human or dog food?

no because they contain too little protein, arginine, taurine, etc. cat foods may be fed to dogs but are calorie dense and may cause obesity


can cats have home-cooked diets

yes but its difficult to formulate


can liquiid diets be fed to DOGS?

yes - nutrient requirements of dogs are not that different from people


dogs require the same essential nutrients as people except for which supplements?

they do NOT require vitamin C and DO require arginine


in what way does dog metabolism differ form people

their metabolism of fat


what are the differences in dog vs wolf genome?

indicative of domesticationn:
nervous system
digestion of carbs and fat

amylase initiates starch digestion
sodium-glucose cotransporter-1