Chapter 9: The Cat Is Unique (Hill) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 9: The Cat Is Unique (Hill) Deck (27):
0

the cat is a pure carnivore and adapted to what?

high protein, high fat, low carbdiet

1

teh cat needs a continuous supply of what nutrients:

retinol, niacin, taurin, and arachidonic acid

little glutamate and benzoic acid

2

why do cats have a high protein requirement?

they are unable to down regulate the enzymes which degrade amino acids

3

arginine in cats

what does deficiency cause?

is essential because its an integral part of the urea cycle

deficiency causes: hyperammonemia due to:

decreased ornithine synthesis from glutamate and proline due to decreased activity of pyrroline-5-carboxylase

decreased citrulline synthesis because less ornithine amino transferase and carbomyl phosphate synthetase activity

4

sulfur containing AA's

increased requirement for them so methionine is usually the limiting amino acid

5

felinine

unique AA only found in cat urine - not needed in diet

6

adaptions to low carb diet:

no glucokinase in liver, so liver does not homeostatically control blood glucose.

blood glucose increases easily in response to stress
cannot taste sweetness

amylase activity is low and increased activity is not induced by increased carb in the diet

gluconeogenesis is switched on all the time even in cats fed a high protein diet

7

arachidonic acid

CONDITIONALLY ESSENTIAL - because its only essential for reproduction in cats

cats lack delta-6 desaturase so are unable to synthesize arachidonic acid from linoleic acid and therefore either need arachidonic acid or gamma-linoleic acid in the diet.

8

Vitamin A

unable to be synthesized in cats because they can't use carotene because they lack the dioxygenase enzyme

9

Vitamin D

required because reduced synthesis of precursor in skin

10

niacin

cats are unable to use tryptophan as a precursor of niacin. reflects increased proteind egradation

11

what two intolerances are indicative of heavy protein diets and low veggie diets?

glutamate and benzoic acid intoleraance

12

taurine structure

resembles alanine except:

taruine has a sulfonyl group and AA resides on the beta carbon

13

taurine function

most common Sulfur containing AA
- conjugates with bile acids in the liver
- lipophobic (diffuses poorly through intact membranes)
- may play a role in osmoregulation (present in cells without cell walls)
- modulate interaction between Ca and phospholipids
- antioxidant

14

taurine deficiency

central retinal degeneration and blindness
poor repro
increased collagen-induced platelet aggregation
reversible dilated cardiomyopathy

15

taurine metabolism

synthesized from methionine and cystein so not essential in most mammals

16

why is taurine essential in the cat

decreased synthesis of taurine from cystein

bile acids conjugated with taurine instead of glycine

17

in what species is taurine conditionally essential in perinatal period?

primates!

18

diagnosis of taurine levels

plasma taurine concentration

whole blood taurine concentration

19

bioavailability of taurine

purified diets > dry > canned

decreased by heat processing

increased fecal losses with soy-bbased diets

20

can cats have vegetarian diets

yes though they are difficult to formulate and needs purified substances found only in animal kingdom like arachidonic acid and retinol

21

can cats eat human or dog food?

no because they contain too little protein, arginine, taurine, etc. cat foods may be fed to dogs but are calorie dense and may cause obesity

22

can cats have home-cooked diets

yes but its difficult to formulate

23

can liquiid diets be fed to DOGS?

yes - nutrient requirements of dogs are not that different from people

24

dogs require the same essential nutrients as people except for which supplements?

they do NOT require vitamin C and DO require arginine

25

in what way does dog metabolism differ form people

their metabolism of fat

26

what are the differences in dog vs wolf genome?

indicative of domesticationn:
nervous system
digestion of carbs and fat

amylase initiates starch digestion
maltase-glucoamylase
sodium-glucose cotransporter-1