Flashcards in Chapter 2- The Henrician Reformation Deck (43):
Why was the Reformation Parliament established (1529) and what was it's significance?
Established due to the failure of Blackfriars (Wolsey and Legate Campeggio in 1529)
Significance: only 3/26 bills were anticlerical. Reformation was not popular.
When was Tyndale's Bible burnt and what was the significance of this?
Showed that the King did not approve of reformation and was loyal to Catholicism
What publication did Anne give Henry in 1530, what was it and why was it significant?
Collectanae Satis Copiosa
Collection of publications as evidence for Royal Supremacy over Church and highlights factionalism.
What shows Henry's desire for political power in 1530? (the reason why More resigned)
The Submission of the Clergy.
Also shows financial gains due to political power as Praeminure charge lifted for money.
What (in 1533) catalysed the Break With Rome?
Anne Boleyn became pregnant.
Elizabeth Barton was the most significant opposition to Henry. What is the evidence for this?
The Treason Act was established to legitimise her execution. She prophesised about the King's marriage to Anne. Made to publicly recant and hung at Tyburn. Her execution was considered to be a political necessity!
Political Acts of 1534?
Supremacy and Treason. Submission of the Clergy. First Succession (which bastardised Mary and declared Elizabeth heir). Restraint of Appeals (no appeals to Pope. All complaints had to go to King)
Financial Acts of 1534?
Restraint of Annates
First Fruit and Tenths
Showed financial gains of political authority.
Thomas More was relatively significant opposition to Henry. Argue this?
Undermined the King as he refused to swear the oath and agree to the divorce. He had international status and was well respected, however only relatively significant as he did not rally opposition against the king.
Carthusians were relatively little significance in terms of opposition.
Religious order that felt suppressed. Some were hung at Tyburn, others starved to death and others hung on trees to prevent widespread opposition. Few and only in South-East
Bishop Fisher was relatively significant opposition. Argue this.
Fisher had influence due to being a Cardinal. Didn't rally opposition, only refused oath.
What did Cromwell promise Henry in 1535?
That he would make him the 'Richest Prince in Christendom'
What evidence is there to show that Henry was influenced by Cromwell? (factionalism)
Introduction of Protestant elements in 1534, although the King remained staunchly Catholic. Protestant Ten Articles introduced, 1536.
Cromwell made 'vicegerent in spirituals' in 1535.
Royal Injunctions 1538. English Bible in every Church and accessible to all.
What evidence is there to show that Henry was influenced by Factionalism in the late 1540's?
Protestant elements such as the Regency Council, English Litany, Cheke, Dissolution of the Monasteries and Chantries.
Influenced by Howard's, Parr and Edward Seymour.
How many institutions were visited by Valor Ecclesiasticus in 1535?
What did Tregonwell's Report in 1535 say?
Mixed condition of the Monasteries. The smaller monasteries of income below £200 were not spiritually healthy.
Led to the Act of Dissolution of the Lesser Monasteries in 1536.
The Pilgrimage of Grace posed a significant threat to the King as it composed of both commoners and nobility (40000), but what is it's significance in terms of religious change?
Demanded preservation of the King and Faith, expulsion of Cromwell and the suppression of heresy. Was not entirely significant as religious change was only a contributory factor. Bad harvest 1535.
Composition of the York Articles?
Composition of the Pontefract Articles?
How many were executed as a result of the Pilgrimage of Grace?
Significance of the Ten Articles?
Transubstantiation to Consubstantiation.
England was politically and doctrinally Protestant.
Which book, written in 1537, endorsed the Ten Articles?
The Bishops Book
Why was the Protestant Matthew Bible not burned by the King?
It endorsed Royal Supremacy.
In what year was Henry excommunicated by Paul III?
What was the significance of the Six Articles?
Enacted in 1539. Shows the start of the fall of Cromwell. Less influenced by him and enacted Catholic doctrine.
When was the Act of Dissolution of the Greater Monasteries?
What was the Act of Proclamations, 1539?
12 councillor had to agree for law to be passed
1543, Act for the Advancement of True Religion?
The Bible was restricted to only middle class educated. Accessibility restricted- Catholic tendencies.
Which book supported the Six Articles 1539?
The King's Book, 1543
What was the Latin Litany replaced with in 1544?
The English Litany. And it's usage was not required.
Who was Cheke?
Humanist, Protestant tutor of Edward VI after 1545
What is the significance of the burning of Anne Askew in 1546?
Burnt for denying Catholicism. Shows that Henry remained staunchly Catholic and did not break with Rome on religious grounds.
Also approved of persecution under Bishop Bonner.
Social Impact of Dissolution?
Support network for peasants was removed. Crime increased because people were stealing to feed their families.
Cultural impact of dissolution?
Robbed. Artefacts and scriptures destroyed.
How did dissolution prevent the populace being completely Catholic?
The regular clergy was removed and prayers for the dead were awaiting removal.
How far was England a Protestant country by 1547?
Politically more Protestant than Catholic due to Supremacy. But relative as Protestants were being executed as a political obstacle to Henry.
Doctrinally, Catholic (6 Articles) but tolerance of Protestant elements (Matthew Bible)
Populace- Catholic in N and W. Prot in SE was entrenched in small communities.
Did Henry break with Rome for religious reasons?
Suppressed Protestantism (Anne askew, burning of Tyndale's bible 1530) but advocated Supremacy. Shows that break was for political reasons rather than religious.
Defence of Catholicism was political. Argue this? (1521)
Charles V was Holy Roman Emperor and Francis I was 'most Christian King'.
Henry wanted a title as political status.
How was Cromwell used by Henry to assert his own political status?
Fear. Used to enforce erastian power over the Church. Harsh punishments for political obstacles.
How did the first Act of Succession contradict the statement that "Henry broke with Rome for dynastic motives"?
If Henry broke with Rome solely in fear that the Tudor dynasty would be usurped, he would not have bastardised Mary and removed her legitimate claim to the throne. He would've wanted more Tudor claimants to the throne.
How did political ambition have financial benefits?
Increased the revenue of the crown via Annates, first fruit and dispensations.
"It's an unclean thing.. They will be childless"
Used religious clauses to legitimise break with Rome for dynastic reasons.