Flashcards in Chapter 4- Mary I Deck (28):
What did the Statute of Repeal do (1553)?
Restored England to it's state prior to the Edwardian Reformation. (Restored to the Six Articles)
Which 4 key Protestant leaders were arrested in 1553?
Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley and Hooper.
When were Cranmer, Latimer, Ridley and Hooper executed?
Latimer, Ridley and Hooper- 1555
Which Laws were reintroduced and what was absolved by Mary in 1554?
Heresy Laws reintroduced.
Supremacy absolved but Mary still had an erastian power over the Church. Pope was restored to figurehead.
What were the Twelve Decrees on Clerical Discipline? (1554)
Mary's attempt to reduce corruption. Against 4 mains abuses. Showed that abuses of the Church had not changed since 1529.
When were the Royal Injunctions put in place and what did they do?
Removed married clergy. Suppressed heresy and priests reordained under the English ordinal.
How many Protestants fled to Germany and Switzerland during the mass exodus of 1554?
What was the Great Act of Repeal in 1555?
It restored England to it's state prior to the Henrician Reformation.
Who was the first Protestant martyr and when was her executed?
John Rogers. Feb 1555.
Who replaced Cranmer?
Why did Pole misunderstand the English people?
He had been in Rome since 1533.
What was Mary's misconception about the English people and why was it significant?
Mary believed that the populace wanted roman-Catholicism when actually they were less radical and wanted Anglo-Catholicism. This meant that Mary's policies would take longer to implement change and this hindered her due to the brevity of her reign. She didn't have time to make such radical change.
Who replaced Julius III in 1555, and why did this hinder Mary?
He was an anti-Habsburg Pope. This caused tension and undermined Mary's attempts to reconcile England and Catholicism.
Why was Mary limited by the dissolution?
Ex-monastic lands could not be returned to the Pope. This limited Mary as recatholicisation could never be fully achieved.
How many Protestants were burned under Mary and why is this number significant?
Significant as it was not many in context. Pilgrimage of Grace, 200 executed 1536 alone and Elizabeth killed far more in her reign.
Who was burned by Mary?
Why did Mary burn Protestants?
Removal of opposition
Also, she genuinely believed that she was saving them- the fire would purify their souls.
Where were most burnings?
Evidence to show Protestantism was still geographically restricted. The north and west remained staunchly catholic.
What were Mary's aims?
2) secure succession
What attempts were made to repress Protestantism?
Indexes of banned texts. Several acts made slander of Royalty punishable by treason. Commissions to administer heresy laws.
Why did repression fail?
Protestant texts were not always seized. Protestant literature outnumbered Catholic literature 2:1.
Was persecution successful?
Short term: relatively as it removed key Protestant leaders and there were no contemporary rebellions
Long term: not successful. Entrenched Protestantism.
Was legislation successful?
Short term: achieved short term aim of ensuring that England was legally catholic (despite erastian nature) before restoring relationship with the Pope.
Long term: relative success as Elizabeth found it very difficult to undo Marian legislation. Easter Bill. However it legitimised persecution which entrenched Protestantism in the long term.
Were Mary's legislative policies popular?
Quick return of Catholic imagery deemed idolatrous under Edward.
But the extent of support that it garnered it questionable as the religion of the populace remained relatively unchanged. No Edwardian policies enforced. Population unaffected. Evidence- lack of religious motives in western and Ketts.
How were bishops in Norwich good evidence for Mary's success in legislation and education?
Many priests in Norwich divorced.
What hindered Mary's policies regarding education?
Brevity of reign, combined with misunderstandings. Her misunderstandings meant that changes would take longer (as more radical). She didn't have time due to brevity.
How successful was education?
Short term: some success. Norwich, seminaries. But relatively little change due to brevity.
Long term: successful- bishops ordained under Mary remained loyal to her and carried forward her aims. Made it difficult for Elizabeth. However could have been more successful if she lived longer.