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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Vocabulary Deck (48):
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Culture

All the shared products of human groups
-physical objects
-beliefs
-values
-behaviors

1

Material culture

Physical objects that people create
Ex. Clothes, food

2

Nonmaterial culture

Abstract human creations
Ex. Love, feelings, and emotions

3

Society

Group of interdependent people who have organized in such a way as to share a common culture and feeling of unity

4

Technology

Combination of objects and rules for using those objects

5

Symbols

Anything that represents something else (has shared meaning)
*can be almost anything as long as people recognize the meaning

6

Language

Organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system

7

Values

Shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable
*help determine the character of people and the kind of culture they create
Ex. Yanomamö tribe and San tribe

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Yanomamö tribe

-farmers along Brazil and Venezuela border
-warfare and feats of male strength important
-rarely had more than 200 people in tribe (normal was 500-1000)
-conflicts caused separation and creation of new colonies
-warfare between new settlements

9

San tribe

-Southern Africa
-life based on cooperation
-do not trespass on land of others
-all members search for food
-share food among all members
-break into smaller units when food is short; come together when food is plentiful

10

Norms

Shared rules of conduct that tell people how to act in specific situations

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Types of norms

Folkways, mores, and laws

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Folkways

Norms that describe socially acceptable behavior but do not have great moral significance attached to them

13

Things to know about folkways

-Failure to abide=reprimand or minor punishment
-some nonconformity allowed because it doesn't endanger stability
-examples: responding hi, please, and thank you, opening doors for others, eating at the table, not eating with your fingers, table manners, etc.

14

Mores

Rules that have great moral significance attached to them

15

Things to know about mores

-violation of rules endangers society's well-being and stability
-examples: appropriate attire, don't make out in public, not flip someone off, don't swear in public, fraudulent claims, etc.

16

Laws

-written rules of conduct enacted and enforced by government

17

Examples of laws

Murder, arson, rape, damage to property, theft, etc.

18

What do we all have in common

All cultures meet needs in different ways;limited only by ..
-biological makeup
-physical environment
Cultural universals

19

Cultural universals

Features common to all cultures that ensure their fulfillment

20

George Murdock

Identified over 65 cultural universals; 7 categories

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George Murdock seven categories

a. Arts and leisure
b. Basic needs
c. Beliefs
d. Communication and education
e. Family
f. Economy
g. Technology

22

Subculture

Group that shares values, norms and behaviors not shared by larger society

23

Things to know about subculture

a. deviant, age, gender, ethnic, religious, political, geographical, social-class, occupational, etc.
b. society is dependent on subcultures:
1) add diversity
2) make society open to change
*Examples: homos, Hispanic cultures

24

Counterculture

Subgroup that challenges values of society and wants to replace them with new ones
*examples: Kkk, Isis, al queda

25

Ethnocentrism

Tendency to view ones own culture and group as superior

26

Things to know about ethnocentrism

*functionalist perspective
*conflict perspective
-encourages discrimination
-too extreme=culture can stagnate

27

Functionalist perspective

Helps to build group unity

28

Conflict perspective

Results in one group or society seeing others as inferior

29

Cultural relativism

Belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards

30

Cultural diffusion

Spreading of cultural traits from one society to another
*examples: McDonald's, cars, clothing, music, sports, religion, entertainment

31

Cultural lag

Time between changes when ideas and beliefs are adapting to new material conditions
*Examples: phones, Internet, gay rights, slavery, women's rights

32

Discovery

Recognize new uses for existing elements
*Examples: cell phones, computers, prescription drugs, texting/sexting

33

Invention

Create something that did not previously exist
*Examples: electricity, automobiles, tv, robots, phone, wheel

34

Cultural leveling

Process in which cultures become more and more alike
*Examples: language, clothes, food

35

Personal achievement

Doing well at school and at work is important. Gaining wealth and prestige is a sign of success

36

Progress and material comfort

History is marked by ongoing progress and this progress improves people's lives

37

Work

Discipline, dedication and hard work are signs of virtue

38

Individualism

Hard work, initiative and individual effort are the keys to personal achievement

39

Efficiency and practicality

Can help solve every problem. Getting things done well in the shortest time is very important

40

Morality and humanitarianism

Judgements should be based on a sense of right and wrong. Can also include helping those less fortunate

41

Equality and democracy

Everyone should have an equal chance at success and the right to participate freely in government

42

Freedom

Personal freedoms, such as freedom of religion, speech and the press, are central to the American way of life

43

Other core values

a. Nationalism and patriotism
b. Science and rationality
c. Racial and group superiority
d. Education
e. Religion

44

Self-fulfillment

Commitment to the full development of one's personality, talents and potential

45

Narcissism

Extreme self-centeredness

46

Things to know about narcissism

a. Weakened the established values of hard work and moderation
b. Threatened the stability of the capitalist system

47

What are all traditional American values

Personal achievement, progress and material comfort, work, individualism, efficiency and practicality, morality and humanitarianism, equality and democracy, freedom, and other core values