Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

Sociology > Chapter 9 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (58):
1

Race as a reality

-racial differences become important because people believe them to be.
*assigning people to racial groups has great social significance and people attach meaning to them
-in sociology terms, "race" is a category of people who share observable physical characteristics and whom others see as being a distinct group
*sociologists were concerned with how people react to physical characteristics and the impact the reactions have on individuals

2

ethnicity

The set of cultural characteristics that distinguishes one group from another group

3

Things about ethnicity

-ethnicity
-ethnic group
-ethnicity is based on characteristics such as national origin, religion, language, customs, and values
-ethnic groups must pass cultural beliefs and practices from generation to generation
-ethnic identity can cross racial or national boundaries
-ethnicity is based on cultural traits, while race is based on physical traits

4

Ethnic group

People who share a common cultural background and a common sense of identity

5

Things about minority groups

-although no particular physical feature or ethnic background is superior or inferior to any other, many sociologists recognize that people may place an arbitrary value on specific characteristics

6

Minority group

A group of people who-because of their physical characteristics or cultural practices-are singled out and treated unequally
-in this sense, the term minority has nothing to do with group size, but with the unequal standing in society in relation to a dominant group

7

Race as a myth

-many people think that humankind can be sorted into biologically distinct groups called races
*this idea suggests that there are "pure" examples of different races and that any person can belong to only one race (based on skin color, hair texture, physical characteristics, etc.)
-biologists, geneticists, and social scientists reject this view of race
-all people belong to the human species
-there are greater differences within racial groups than between racial groups.

8

Dominant group

The group that possesses the ability to discriminate by virtue of its greater power, privilege, and social status in a society

9

Dominant group in American society

White people with Northern European ancestry

10

Characteristics that distinguish minority groups

-possesses identifiable physical or cultural characteristics that differ from the dominant group
-recipients of unequal treatment at the hands of the dominant group
-member in the group is an ascribed status
-share a strong bond and sense of group loyalty
-tend to practice endogamy (marriage within the group)

11

Discrimination and prejudice

-the inequality experienced by minority groups are common across the globe

12

Things about discrimination

-discrimination
-can occur on an individual level or societal level
-legal discrimination
-institutionalized discrimination

13

Discrimination

The denial of equal treatment to individuals based on their group membership

14

Legal discrimination

Upheld by law

15

Institutionalized discrimination

Outgrowth of the structure of a society

16

Things about prejudice

-prejudice
-stereotype
-self-fulfilling prophecy
-racism

17

Prejudice

An unsupported generalization about a category of people

18

Stereotype

Over-simplified, exaggerated, or unfavorable generalization about a group

19

Self-fulfilling prophecy

A prediction resulting in behavior that fulfills the prophecy

20

Racism

The belief that one's own race is superior

21

Robert k Merton

Argued that prejudice and discrimination are related, but do not always go hand-in-hand
-people combine them in four ways
*the active bigot
*the timid bigot
*the fair-weather liberal
*the all-weather liberal

22

The active bigot

The active bigot is prejudiced and openly discriminatory

23

The timid bigot

The timid bigot is prejudiced, but is afraid to discriminate because of societal pressures

24

The fair-weather liberal

The fair-weather liberal is not prejudiced but discriminates anyway because of societal pressure

25

The all-weather liberal

The all-weather liberal is not prejudiced and does not discriminate

26

Sources of discrimination and prejudice

-sociological explanations
-psychological explanations
-economic explanations

27

Sociological explanations

Prejudice are embedded in social norms

28

Psychological explanations

-prejudiced people have an authoritarian personality type
-prejudice may be a result of frustration and anger
-scapegoating

29

Scapegoating

Occurs when an innocent person or group is blamed for one's troubles

30

Economic explanations

-prejudice arises out of competition for resources
-dominant group may encourage competition between minority groups in order to maintain its dominant status

31

Patterns of minority group treatment

-cultural pluralism
-assimilation
-legal protection
-segregation
-subjugation
-population transfer
-extermination

32

Cultural pluralism

A policy that allows each group within society to keep its unique cultural identity
-Switzerland is an example with three official languages

33

Assimilation

The blending of culturally distinct groups into a single group with a common culture and identity

34

Things about assimilation

-American idea of "melting pot"
-can happen informally or by force

35

Legal protection

The rights of minorities are protected by law

36

Things about legal protection

-the United States is an example
-includes affirmative action laws

37

Segregation

A policy that physically separates a minority group from the dominant group

38

Things about segregation

-"de jure" segregation is based on laws
-"de facto" segregation is based on custom and informal norms

39

Subjugation

-a practice whereby domination is maintained by force

40

Things about subjugation

-most extreme form is slavery
-south Africa's system of apartheid is an example

41

Population transfer

-seperate of groups by transferring the minority population to a new territory

42

Things about population transfer

-"indirect" transfer occurs when the dominant groups makes life for minorities so miserable that they leave
-"direct" transfer involves using force to move people to new locations

43

Extermination

Most extreme; goal is elimination

44

Things about extermination

-genocide
-ethnic cleansing

45

Genocide

Is the goal of complete destruction of a minority group
-holocaust and Rwanda are examples

46

Ethnic cleansing

The combination of extermination and transferral.
-Serbia and Sudan are examples

47

The American dilemma

-the gap between what Americans claim to believe and how they actually behave
-Americans have not always lived up to the ideals of freedom and equality when dealing with minority groups
-the conflict dates back to colonial times
-minority groups have prospered in relation to how closely they adapt to the white Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) ideal

48

African Americans

-12% of the population
-experiences historically shaped by slavery, discrimination, and segregation
-civil rights movement brought significant gains towards equality
-some negative trends in education, employment and income that reveal continuing inequality
-since 1965 legislation, the number of black representatives in government has grown quickly
-organizations such as the National Urban League work to empower African Americans
-group faces environmental racism

49

Environmental racism

Racial bias in environmental policies and practices

50

Hispanic Americans

-largest minority group
-trace their heritage to Spain or Spanish-speaking Latin Americans countries
-population of Hispanics is growing faster than general population
-1960s: Hispanics in the United States were mostly from Mexico, Cuba and Puerto Rico
-central and South American immigrants now more common
-came to the United States to seek political freedom and economic opportunity
-estimates in 2014 that there are more than 11.3 million illegal immigrants in the United States; vast majority are Hispanic
-Hispanics now hold more than 6,000 appointed and elected positions
-poverty rate is double that of white Americans

51

Asian Americans

-5% of the population
-earliest to arrive were Chinese and Japanese
-immigrants from most Asian countries are now here, including the Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Pakistan
-projected to be 8 percent of population by 2050
-have used education to move economic ladder
-median income is higher for Asian Americans than for other groups
-some call Asian Americans "the model minority" because of their quick assimilation
-Asian Americans face higher rates of stress, depression, mental illness, and suicide attempts

52

Native Americans

-2.9 million individuals
-original inhabitants of the United States
-disease, warfare, and destruction reduced numbers drastically
-U.S. government took traditional lands and forced Native Americans onto reservations
-policies encouraged assimilation into white culture
-today 55 percent are on reservations
-statistics reveal dire challenges for Native Americans populations (depression, suicide, alcoholics)
-pan-indianism

53

Pan-indianism

A social and political movement that united culturally distinct Native American nations to work together on issues that affect all Native Americans

54

Other minorities

White ethnics, Jewish Americans, and Arab americans

55

White ethnics

-were immigrants from the mainly catholic countries of Ireland, Italy, France, Poland, and Greece
-faced discrimination by the white Protestant majority

56

Jewish Americans

-focus their ethnic identity on their religion
-faced anti-semitism

57

Anti-semitism

discrimination and prejudice against Jews

58

Arab Americans

-3.5 million Arab Americans
-face new discrimination after the Arab-led terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001