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Internalization of norms

Process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual's personality; individual conforms to society's expectations

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Social control

Enforcing norms through internal or external means

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Things about social control

1) principle means is self-controlled
2) authority figures, police, courts, family, public opinion, etc.
3) social stability is jeopardized by behavior that violates public norms

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Sanctions

Rewards or punishments used to enforce conformity to norms

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Types of sanctions

Positive sanctions, negative sanctions, formal sanction, and informal sanction

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Positive sanctions

An action that rewards a particular kind of behavior
a.praise
b.good grades
c.pay raises
d.cheers from a crowd

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Negative sanctions

Punishment or threat of punishment used to enforce conformity
a.most of the time a threat of punishment is enough
b.examples: parking ticket, frown, imprisonment, death, etc.

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Formal sanctions

Reward or punishment given by a formal organization or regulatory agency

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Negative formal examples

Low grades, suspension, fines, fired from job, etc.

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Positive formal examples

Diploma, promotions, awards, etc.

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Informal sanctions

Spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or group

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Negative informal examples

Frowns, gossips, insults, ridicule, etc.

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Positive informal examples

Standing ovation, compliments, smiles, etc.

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Deviance

Any behavior that violates significant social norms
-examples: drag racing on public street, using illegal drugs, taking to oneself in public, using weapons to attack someone, etc.
-violating norms
-label of deviance

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Violating norms (deviance)

a. Varies from society to society
b. Labeling someone as deviant
1) repeating an offense
2) act has serious negative consequences for society

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Label of deviance

a. Involves two components:
1) be detected committing a deviant act
2) must be stigmatized by society
-stigma

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Stigma

Mark of social disgrace that sets them apart from the rest of society

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Emile Durkheim

Deviance helps clarify norms, unify the group, diffuse tension and promote social change

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Social functions of deviance

1) Emile Durkheim
2) provides jobs in various fields (lawyers, law enforcement, judges, etc.)
3) defines boundaries of acceptable behavior
4) punishment of violators serves as warning to others
5) draws line between conforming members of society and "outsiders"
6) minor deviance allows people to "vent"
7) prompts social change by identifying problem areas

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Strain theory (Robert k Merton)

Views deviance as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structure of society

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Facts about string theory

1) society places a high value on certain goals (Econ, success)
2) people don't have equal access to achieve goal
3) anomie

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Anomie

Situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear or are no longer applicable

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5 modes of adaptation to achieve societal goals

Conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreating and rebellion

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Conformity

Accept society's goals and means to achieve them

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Innovation

Accept goals of society but do not accept the means for reaching these goals
-examples: drug dealers

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Ritualism

Abandon societal goals while continuing to observe the expected rules of behavior
-example: pass up promotion to avoid failure

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Retreatism

Reject cultural goals and the acceptable means of attaining them
(May drop out of society)

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Rebellion

Want to substitute new goals and means for the approved set
(May use violent or nonviolent methods)

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Functionalist perspective

a. Strain theory (Robert k Merton)
b. 5 modes of adaptation to achieve societal goals

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Conflict perspective

a. Competition and social inequality lead to deviance
1) people with power commit deviant acts to keep power
2) people without power commit deviant acts to get power
b. Richard quinney

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Richard quinney (conflict perspective)

Ruling class declares anything that threatens their power as deviant

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Interactionist perspective

a. Control theory
b. Cultural transmission theory
c. Labeling theory

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Control theory

Deviance is a natural occurrence; look at why people conform

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Things about control theory

1) social ties among individuals
2) individuals integrated into community will conform
3) Travis hirschi

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Travis hirschi

-people develop bonds in four ways
a) form attachment with others who accept norms
b) strong belief in society's moral codes
c) show commitment to traditional societal values/goals
d) involved in nondeviant activities (time consuming)

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Cultural transmission theory

Behavior is learned through interaction with others

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Things about cultural transmission theory

-differential association
-all people are conformists

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Differential association

Frequency and closeness of associations a person has with deviant and nondeviant individuals

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Labeling theory

Focuses on how individuals were identified as deviant

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Things about labeling theory

1) primary deviance
2) secondary deviance

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Primary deviance

Occasional violation of norms

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Secondary deviance

Deviance is a lifestyle; labeled as deviant and believes the label

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Crime

Any act that is labeled as such by those in authority and is prohibited by law

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Violent crime

-murder, forcible rape, robbery and aggravated assault
-occurs every 22 seconds in us
-most victims are African American; for murder it is african American men 18-24
-majority of murders committed by guns

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Property crime

-involves stealing or intentionally damaging someone else's property
-burglary, larceny (theft other than auto), motor vehicle theft and arson
-committed every 3 seconds in US
-people under 25 yrs old commit a large part of the crimes
-drug use/habits have strong correlation with crime rates

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Victimless crime

-prostitution, illegal gambling, illegal drug use and vagrancy
-supposedly harm no one other than themselves

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White-collar crime

-offenses committed by people of high social status in the course of their profession
-misrepresentation, fraud, tax evasion, embezzlement, price-fixing, toxic pollution, insider trading and political corruption
-costs the U.S. more than $300 billion
-not always dealt with "equally"

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Organized crime

-crime syndicate
-many have legitimate businesses that they use as a "front"

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Crime syndicate

Large-scale organization of professional criminals that controls some vice or legitimate business through violence or the threat of violence

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Police (hold the most immediate control)

-police discretion
-factors to consider:
-seriousness of the offense
-wishes of the victim taken into consideration
-suspect's attitude
-make arrest if bystanders are present
-more likely to arrest and use force against african Americans (racial profiling)

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Police discretion

Power to decide who is actually arrested

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Courts

-role:
-holds a trial to determine guilt
-penalty phase
-plea bargaining

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Plea bargaining

Legal negotiation that allows accused to plead guilty to a lesser charge

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Corrections

-corrections
-four basic functions:
-retribution
-deterrence
-rehabilitation
-social protection
-recidivism


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Corrections

sanctions used to punish criminals

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Retribution

Socially acceptable act of revenge for victim and society

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Deterrence

Discourage offenders from committing future crimes

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Rehabilitation

Reform criminals so they could be law-abiding citizens

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Social protection

Limiting freedom of offenders protects society

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Recidivism

Repeated criminal behavior (remains high)

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Juvenile justice system

-laws became more specific for juvenile offenders in the 1960s
-juveniles could not be expected to be as responsible as adults
-juveniles needed special, more considerate attention

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Organized crime

-crime syndicate
-many have legitimate businesses that they use as a "front"