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Factors leading to creation of sociology

a. Rapid social and political changes during industrial
b. Urban population growth

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Rapid social and political changes during industrial revolution

-rural economy gave way to large-scale production
-factory replaced home
-growth of cities

2

Urban population growth

-high number of unemployed
-housing shortages
-crime and pollution increased
-impersonal nature of city living

3

Who are the early European scholars

Auguste Comte, Harriet martineau, Herbert spencer, and Karl Marx

4

Auguste Comte

-founder of sociology
-applied methods of physical sciences
-looked at the causes and consequences of French Revolution
-focus areas of study: social order and social change
*social statics
*social dynamics

5

Social statics

Certain processes that hold society together (i.e. family, government, economics, education)

6

Social dynamics

Definite processes that cause societal change (war, elections, social media)

7

Harriet martineau

-published society in America
-reported on marriage, family, race relations, education, and religion
-set standard for objectivity
-believed scholars should change to solve the problems the studied
-spoke out in favor of women's right, religious tolerance and end of slavery

8

Herbert spencer

a. Society is a set of interdependent parts that work together to maintain the system over time
b. Influenced by Charles Darwin
-social change and unrest are natural occurrences in a societies evolution toward stability and perfection
-best aspects of society would survive over time
-social Darwinism

9

Social Darwinism

Only the fittest societies would survive

10

Karl Marx

a. Society is divided into two classes
-bourgeoise
-proletariat
b. Class conflict would occur (primary cause of social change)
-poletariats would overthrow power
-would build a classless society

11

Bourgeoise

Capitalists ("haves"); own materials and methods of production

12

Proletariats

Workers ("have nots") own labor

13

Who were the later European scholars

Emile Durkheim and max weber

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Emile Durkheim

a. Society is a set of interdependent parts with each having a specific function
b. Function
c. Focus: function of religion in maintaining social order
*social beliefs and values
d. Should only study those things that are observable
*suicide-the first sociological study

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Function

Consequence that an element of society produced for the maintenance of its social system

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Max weber

a. Focus: separate groups within society
b. Look at effect of society on individual
c. Verstehen
d. Ideal type

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Verstehen

Attempt to understand the meanings individuals attach to their actions (put themselves in someone else's shoes)

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Ideal type

General description of essential characteristics of a feature of society
i.e. School, government body, etc.

19

Who are the American scholars

Chicago school, Jane Adams, and w.e.b. Dubois

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Chicago school

a. Focus: group interactions and impact of society in individual development
b. Led to interactionalist perspective
c. Study of society should include practical solutions to social problems

21

Jane Addams

a. Opened hull house
*offered welfare, educational and recreational services for poor
b. Hull house maps and papers
*covered wage levels, sweatshops, child labor, immigrant experience and living conditions in poverty-stricken neighborhoods
*first serious discussion about industrialization and urbanization

22

W.e.b. Dubois

a. African American sociologist
b. The Philadelphia negro
-life in an African American neighborhood
-first empirical (data) community study
-race was an issue that needed to be addressed in society