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Social structure

Network of interrelated statuses and roles that guide human interaction

1

Status

Socially defined position in a group or society (title)
*example: athlete, parent, artist, dog-owner

2

Roles

BEHAVIOR expected of someone occupying a particular status
*example: student; listener, complete work, be respectful, be a friend, be an athlete

3

Two types of statuses

Ascribed and achieved statuses

4

Ascribed status

Assigned according to qualities beyond a persons control
*based on inherited traits or when you reach a certain age
*examples: daughter, son, age (teenager), race, and gender

5

Achieved status

Acquired through their own efforts
*based on skills, knowledge or abilities
*examples: job, criminal, bully, athlete, spouse, or parent

6

Master status

Plays greatest role in shaping a persons life and determining identity
a. Either achieved or ascribed (for most adults it's achieved)
b. Changes over time
c. Examples: student, parent

7

Reciprocal roles

Corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses
*examples: doctor-patient, coach-athlete, parent-child, teacher-student, employer-employee

8

Role expectations

Socially determined behaviors of a person performing a role (what they are expected to do in society)
*examples: police officer-protect and serve, teacher-educate young minds

9

Role performance

Actual role behavior
1) May not match the behavior expected to do in society
*corrupt police officer
2) not all parts of society agree on what is appropriate role performance

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Role set

The different roles attached to a single status
-examples: team player, captain, starter

11

Role conflict

Fulfilling the role expectations of one status makes it difficult to fulfill the role expectations of another status
*good employee-bad parent, friend-boyfriend

12

Role strain

A person has difficulty meeting the role expectations of a single status
*examples: employer; boost morale,work overtime/ er doctor; work long hours, skill ability goes down

13

Role exit

Process people go through to detach from a role that has been central to their self-identity
*ex-convict, ex spouse

14

Helen rose ebaugh

People go through certain common stages on their way to creating a new identity as an "ex"
1)experience disillusionment with the old role
2)start to look for alternate roles
3)reach occurs because society expects the "ex" to behave according to the old identity
*conflict occurs because society expects "ex" to behave according to the old identity
-examples: ex-convict, etc.

15

Social institution

Statuses and roles are organized into units that satisfy one or more basic needs of society
a.family
b.economy
c.political institution
d.education
e.religion

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Social institution: Family

Take responsibility for raising the young and teaching them accepted norms and values

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Social institution: Economy

Organizes the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services

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Social institution: Political institution

System of norms that governs the exercise and distribution of power in society

19

Social institution: Education

Ensures the transmission of values, patterns of behavior and certain skills and knowledge

20

Social institution: Religion

Provides a shared, collective explanation of the meaning of life

21

Exchange (low)

When people interact in an effort to receive a reward or a return for their actions
-most basic and common form of interaction
-examples: notes-notes, wallet-money

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Reciprocity (medium)

The idea that if you do something for a person, that person owes you something in return
-can be either material or non-material
-examples: please, thank you, and money

23

Exchange theory (high)

People are motivated by self-interest in their interactions with other people
-people do things primarily for the rewards
-wallet for money

24

Competition

When two or more people/groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain
-positive: motivates people
-negatives: stress, lack of cooperation in social relationships, inequality and conflict
-examples: sports, businesses, churches and schools

25

Conflict

Deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person
-few rules of accepted conduct
-four sources of conflict
-positives

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Four sources of conflict

Wars, disagreement between groups, legal disputes, and clashes over ideology, such as religion and politics

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Positives of conflict

Reinforces group boundaries, strengthens group loyalty by focusing attention on an outside threat, can lead to social change by bringing problems to the forefront and forcing opposing sides to seek solutions

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Cooperation

Two or more people/groups work together to achieve a desired goal that will benefit more than one person
-examples: sports, school group, etc.

29

Accommodation

A state of balance between cooperation and conflict (helps to ensure social stability)
-compromise
-truce
-mediation
-arbitration

30

Compromise

Occurs when the two parties at odds each give up something to come to a mutual agreement

31

Truce

Temporarily brings a halt to the competition or conflict until a compromise can be reached

32

Mediation

Calling in a third party who acts as advisor and counselor to guide the two parties toward an agreement

33

Arbitration

A third party makes a decision that is binding on both parties

34

Group

Set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess a common identity
*largest group studied is society

35

Subsistence strategies

Ways societies use technology to provide for the needs of its members
-how sociologists classify societies

36

Preindustrial society

Food production is main economic activity
-animal and human labor
-subdivided according to technology level and method of producing food

37

Preindustrial societies

-group
-subsistence strategies
-examples: hunter-gatherer, pastoral (division of labor), horticultural, and agricultural (barter)

38

Hunter gatherer societies

-daily collection of wild plants and hunting wild animals
-move around constantly
*do not build permanent villages
*do not generate numerous artifacts
-rarely exceed 100 people
-statuses are relatively equal
-decisions reached through group consensus
-family forms main social unit
-family carries out most social functions

39

Pastoral societies

-rely on domesticated animals to meet food needs
-live a nomadic lifestyle (not as much)
*move herds to various pastures
-can support larger populations
-have excessive food supply
*fewer people needed to prepare food
*division of labor
-production of goods encourages trade
*tends to create inequality
*creates families with more power
-hereditary chieftanships emerge

40

Division of labor

Specialization by individuals/groups to perform specific economic activities

41

Horticultural societies

-fruits and vegetables grown in garden plots
*slash and burn method popular for clearing fields
*rotate garden plots
-similar technology to pastoral societies
-build permanent to semi-permanent villages
-population depends on amount of land available for farming
-division of labor
-economic and political systems more developed

42

Agricultural societies

-animal labor utilized more with plows
*more crops produced
*irrigation used
-larger populations
-specialization led to cities
-power transferred from generation to generation (usually a monarchy)
-develop armies to protect
-create roads...leads to less bartering (exchanging of goods) and more exchanging with money
-developed a system of writing to keep records
-statuses: peasants or landowners

43

Industrial societies

-emphasis shifts to manufactured goods
-production carried out by machines
-supports larger populations because food production increased
-switch from agricultural to industrial workers
-urbanization occurs
-creates institutions
*education occurs outside of home
*more freedom to compete for social position

44

Postindustrial societies

-focus is on information and services, not manufacturing
-standard of living improves as wages increase
-stronger emphasis on education and role of science
-technological advances are key to prosperity
-rights of individuals and self-fulfillment are important values
-strong emphasis on social equality and democracy

45

Contrasting societies

-Emile Durkheim
*mechanical solidarity-preindustrial societies
-people share same values and perform the same tasks
-United for common good
*organic solidarity-more developed societies
-complex division of labor; impersonal social relationships
-become dependent on others for survival

46

Contrasting societies 2

-Ferdinand tönnies
*gemeinschaft (community)
-most people know each other; group solidarity
-relationships are close
-activities center on family and community
*gesellschaft (society)
-social relationships based on need; impersonal and temporary
-traditional values are weak
Individual goals more important than group goals

47

Four major features of a group

-it must consist of two or more people
-there must be interaction among members
-members must have shared expectations
-members must posses some sense of common identity

48

Aggregate

When people gather together in one place but lack organization or interaction
-examples: people on airplanes, crowd at a basketball game, people standing in a ticket line, etc.

49

Social categories

Means of classifying people according to a shared trait or common status
-examples: students, women, left handed people, etc.

50

What are the group characteristics

Size
-dyad
-triad
-groups really don't have a limit
Time
Organization

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Dyad

The smallest group consisting of two people
-each member has direct control over the groups existence

52

Triad

Group of three people
-one person cannot disband the group
-decisions are easier to make

53

Groups really don't have a limit

*sociologists consider a group of 15 is the largest group that works well together
*any group larger than that tends to sort themselves into smaller groups

54

Time

-interaction is not continuous
-varies according to group and need

55

Organization

-formal group
-informal group

56

Formal group

Structure, goals and activities of the group are clearly defined
-examples:church, fccla, ffa

57

Informal group

No official structure or established rules of conduct
-examples: prom planning, Wednesday soccer

58

Types of groups

Primary, secondary, reference, in-group, and out-group

59

Primary group

Small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time
-direct and personal basis
-relationships are intimate and often face-to-face
-communication is deep and intense
-structure is informal

60

Secondary group

Interaction is temporary and impersonal
-more casual with limited personal involvement
-person's importance depends on function they play for the group (an individual can be replaced)
-organized around specific goals

61

Reference group

Any group that an individual identifies with
-adopt their attitudes and values
-examples: friends, school clubs, co-workers, etc.

62

In-group

Group that a person belongs to or identifies with
-tend to separate themselves through use of symbols
-view themselves positively and view others negatively
-often compete with out-groups

63

Out-group

Group that a person doesn't belong to or identify with

64

Electronic community

People interacting via electronic means

65

Social networks

Web of relationships formed by all of a person's interactions with others

66

Things to know about social network

-direct and in-direct relationships
-do not have clear boundaries
-do not give a common sense of identity
-provide a support system

67

Group functions

-groups need to define boundaries by using symbols, gestures and language
-groups also have to select leaders
*people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others
*leadership rules may be assigned by members
*leadership may be achieved because of abilities
*leaders fall into two groups
1) Instrumental leaders
2) Expressive leaders
-groups also need to control behavior of members
*groups employ effective sanctions to ensure conformity to norms
1) conformity

68

Instrumental leaders

Task-oriented (help the group reach goals)

69

Expressive leaders

Emotion-oriented (find ways to keep the group together and maintain morale)

70

Conformity

Accordance with accepted rules or conventions