Chapter 21 - Cardiovascular System: Heart Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21 - Cardiovascular System: Heart Deck (63):
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The four characteristics of the heart

- Vital for survival
- Carries oxygen and nutrients to tissues
- Carries wastes away from tissues
- Closed system

1

What kind of circuit is the heart?

Double circuit

2

Two circuits of the heart

Pulmonary and systemic

3

Functions of the pulmonary circuit

- Blood goes from heart to lungs and back
- Oxygenates blood

4

Functions of the systemic circuit

- Brings blood from the heart to body and back
- Delivers oxygen to tissues

5

Structure of the heart

- Cone shaped
- Inside PERICARDIAL CAVITY
- Inside MEDIASTINUM
- APEX tipped toward the inferior and left
- BASE superior

6

Double serous membrane with fibrous coat of the heart

Pericardium

7

Layers of the pericardium

Parietal pericardium
Epicardium

8

- Outer layer of pericardium
- Fibrous and areolar layer

Parietal pericardium

9

Another name for the epicardium

Visceral pericardium

10

- Inner layer of sac
- Adheres to the heart wall

Epicardium

11

- Between layers of heart
- Contains serous fluid

Pericardial cavity

12

Layers to the wall of the heart

Epicardium
Myocardium
Endocardium

13

Contains the visceral pericardium and functions as protective outer layer of heart

Epicardium

14

- Middle layer of heart
- Responsible for contractions
- Made of cardiac muscle

Myocardium

15

Three characteristics of the endocardium

- Inner layer
- Lines and protects chambers and valves
- Continuous with endothelium of heart vessels

16

Five characteristics about cardiac muscle tissue

- Striated
- Aerobic respiration
- Short T-tubules
- Connected mechanically and chemically

17

How does the heart connect mechanically and chemically

Intercalated discs
Gap junctions

18

Four chambers of the heart

2 atria
2 ventricles

19

What do the auricles do?

Flaps where blood pools

20

- Superior chambers
- Receives blood from veins

2 Atria

21

- Inferior chambers of the heart
- Force blood out to arteries

2 ventricles

22

How are the two sides of the ventricles different from each other?

- Left ventricle thicker and stronger
- Right goes only to lungs
- Left is round
- Right pouch shaped

23

Prevent back flow in the heart

Antrioventricular valves

24

- At right antrioventricular orfice
- 3 cusps

Tricuspid valve

25

When do the tricuspid valves open and close?

Open why atrial force is greater and closes when ventricular force is greater

26

- Left AV valve
- 2 cuspids
- At left atrioventricular orfice

Bicuspid valve

27

- Heart strings
- Hold valves in place
- Attached to cusps on ventricle side

Chordae Tendonae

28

What does the chordae tendonae prevent?

- Cusps from collapsing into into atria when valve is closed
- Backflow of blood

29

What are papillary muscles?

- Small bundles of muscles
- Attach to the chordae tendonae
- When valves close, these muscles contract and tighten cords

30

Scaffolding on interior walls of the ventricles

Trabeculae carneae

31

Valve between ventricle and artery

Semilunar valves

32

- Right
- At entrance to pulmonary trunk
- Opens when right ventricle contracts

Pulmonary valve

33

- Left
- At entrance the aorta
- Opens when left ventricle contracts

Aortic valve

34

Path of blood through the heart

- RIGHT ATRIUM - receives blood from superior and inferior vena cava plus coronary sinus
- RIGHT AV VALVE
- RIGHT VENTRICLE - CONUS ARTERIOSUS - funnel leading from right ventricle to pulmonary trunk
- PULMONARY VALVE
- PULMONARY TRUNK - goes to the lungs
- LEFT ATRIUM - receives blood from pulmonary veins
- LEFT AV VALVE
- LEFT VENTRICLE
- AORTIC VALVE
- AORTA - to issues

35

What does coronary circulation?

- Supplies the heart tissues with blood
- Blockage can result in a heart tissue dying

36

Branch directly off of the aorta as it emerges

Coronary arteries

37

Two coronary arteries

- Left coronary artery
- Right coronary artery

38

Components to the LCA

- Circumflex artery
- Anterior interventricular artery

39

Two arteries of the RCA

- Posterior interventricular artery
- Marginal artery

40

What do cardiac veins do?

Drain myocardium

41

Vein that empties into right atrium

Coronary sinus

42

Three cardiac veins

Great, middle, and small cardiac veins

43

Contractile phase; chamber empties

Systole

44

Relaxation phase of the heart; chambers fill

Diastole

45

Sounds of the heart and explanations

Lub = AV valves close
Dup = semi lunar valves close

46

Heart beat is enabled by what cells?

- Nodal cells
- Conducting fibers

47

Specialized muscle cells that conduct action potentials

Nodal cells

48

Distributes stimulus to myocardium

Conducting fibers

49

What part of the heart contracts first?

Atria contract before ventricles

50

What causes the heart to contract unevenly?

Action Potentials

51

Step One of the conduction system of heart beat

SA (sinoatrial) node
- Pacemaker
- Spontaneously depolarized
- At the back wall of the right atrium

52

Step 2 for heartbeat

AV (Atrioventricular node)
- Where four chambers meet
- Signal transmitted to AV node through INTERNODAL PATHWAYS

53

Step 3 for heartbeat

AV (antrioventricular) bundle
- Transmits down interventricular septum

54

Stop 4 for heartbeat

BUNDLE BRANCHES
- Branches off the AV bundle
- Moves further down the septum
- One supplies each ventricle

55

Step 5 of heartbeat

PURKINJE FIBERS
- Reflect up external wall of ventricle
- Extend into papillary muscles

56

Components of the Electrocardiogram with meanings

P wave - depolarization of atria
QRS - depolarization of ventricle
T wave - repolarization of ventricle

57

Cardiac output of ECG/EKG

5L/min

58

Spontaneous contractions

Autorhythmicity

59

Chemical control of the heart is done how?

NE and E: Increase rate and force

60

Neural control of the heart is done where and with what centers?

Medull
- Cardioacceleratory centers
- Cardioinhibitory centers

61

Release NE/ increase HR

Cardioacceleratory centers

62

Release Ach/decrease HR

Cardioinhibitory centers