Chapter 8 - Articulations Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Articulations Deck (106):
0

Hold bones together but may permit movement

Joints

1

Points of contact between joints

- Between two bones
- Between cartilage and bone
- Between teeth and bones

2

Study of joints

Arthrology

3

Study of motion

Kinesiology

4

Three classifications of joints based on movement

1. Synarthrosis = immovable
2. Amphiarthrosis = slightly
3. Diarthrosis = freely

5

Classifications of joints based on anatomy

1. Fibrous (collagen fibers)
2. Cartilaginous (cartilage)
3. Synovial (joint capsule and accesory ligaments)

6

Joints that lack a synovial cavity

Fibrous joints

7

What are fibrous joints held together by?

Fibrous connective tissue

8

How much movement do fibrous joints have?

Little or none (synarthroses or amphiarthroses)

9

Three structural types of fibrous joints

1. Sutures
2. Syndesmoses
3. Gomphoses

10

Three characteristics of sutures

1. Thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue unites bones of the skull
2. Immovable (synarthrosis)
3. If fused completely in adults is synostosis

11

Three characteristics of Sydesmosis

1. Fibrous joint
2. Bones united by ligament
3. lightly movable (amphiarthrosis)

12

Where are syndesmosis joints?

Anterior tibiofibular and interosseous membrane

13

What is a gomphosis joint and what kind of movement does it have?

- Ligament holds cone-shaped peg in bony socket
- Immovable (synarthrosis)

14

Where are the gomphosis joints?

- Teeth in alveolar processes of maxillae or mandible

15

- Lacks a synovial cavity
- Allows little or no movement
- Bones tightly connected by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage

Cartilage joints

16

Two types of cartilage joints

1. Synchondross
2. Symphyses

17

Connecting material in synchondrosis joints

Hyaline cartilage

18

Movement in synchondrosis joints

Immovable (synarthrosis)

19

Where are synchondrosis joints?

Epiphyseal plate or joints between ribs and sternum

20

In synchondrosis, when fusion occurs, it becomes a _____

Synostosis

21

Connecting material in symphysis joints

Fibrocartilage

22

Movement in symphysis joints?

Slightly movable (amphiarthroses)

23

Where are the symphysis joints?

- Intervertebral discs
- Pubic symphysis

24

Synovial joint features

1. 2 bones separated by fluid filled cavity
2. Joint capsules has 2 layers

25

Two layers of joints capsules

1. Synovial membrane
2. Articular cartilage

26

Synovial fluid components

- Blood filtrate
- Hyaluronic acid
- Glycoproteins

27

Synovial fluid functions

- Lubricate joint surfaces
- Nourish chondrocytes
- Shock absorber

28

What do ligaments do?

- Reinforce and strengthen joint capsules
- Connect bone to bone with dense regular CT

29

Two ligament types

1. Extracapsular ligaments
2. Intracapsular ligaments

30

- Outside joint capsules
- Collaterals

Extracapsular ligaments

31

- Ligaments within capsules
- Cruciates (ex ACL)

Intracapsular ligaments

32

- Pads of fibrous cartilage that subdivide a cavity

Articular discs

33

Another name for articular discs

Menisci

34

Example of articular discs (menisci)

- Ulnolunate joint
- Knee joint

35

Articular disc functions

- Channel flow of synovial fluid
- Modify articular surfaces
- Restrict movements at joint
- Cushion articulating surfaces
- Help distribute body weight

36

Adipose tissue surrounding the synovial capsule

Fat pads

37

Example of fat pads

Tibiofemoral joint

38

Functions of fat pads

- Protect articular cartilage
- Packing material
- Fills spaces when joint changes shape

39

Small, fluid filled pockets of connective tissue

Bursae

40

Location and Functions of bursae

Location: Hypodermis; between tendons, ligaments, and bones
Function: Cushion and support; aid in movements of tendons

41

Two opposing surfaces that slide past each other

Gliding

42

A change in angle between the shaft and the articular surface

Angular movement

43

- A type of angular motion
- Rotation of the shaft while changing the angle

Circumduction

44

Spinning of the shaft without changing the angle

Rotation

45

Types of angular motion

- Abduction
- Adduction
- Flexion
- Extension
- Hyperextension

46

Types of rotation

- Pronation
- Supination

47

Special movements

- Eversion/inversion
- Dorsiflexion/ Plantar flexion
- Lateral flexion
- Protraction/ Retraction
- Opposition
- Elevation/ Depression

48

Making the angle smaller in body movement

Flexion

49

Moving the body back to anatomical position

Extension

50

The trade off between flexibility and stability in synovial joints are due to

- Shape of articulating surfaces
- Tightness of ligaments
- Presence of accessory ligaments
- Other factors: other bones, muscles or fat pads

51

Types of synovial joints

- Plane
- Hinge
- Pivot
- Condylar
- Saddle
- Ball and socket

52

- Bone surfaces are flat or slightly curved
- Side to side movement only
- Rotation prevented by ligaments

Plane joint

53

Examples of plane joints

- Intercarpal or intertarsal joints
- Sternoclavicular joint
- Vertebrocostal joints

54

If you bring your mandible forward (underbite)

Protraction

55

- Convex surface of one bones fits into concave surface of 2nd bone
- UNIAXIAL like a door hinge

Hinge joint

56

Examples of hinge joints

- Knee
- Elbow
- Ankle
- Interphalangeal joints

57

Movements produced from the hinge joint (also define their meanings)

Flexion: decreasing the joint angle
Extension: increasing the angle
Hyperextension: opening the joint beyond the anatomical position

58

- Rounded surface of bone articulates with ring formed by 2nd bone and ligament

Pivot joint

59

Is the pivot joint uniaxial? If so, why?

It allows only rotation around longitudinal axis

60

Examples of pivot joints

1. Proximal radioulnar joints
2. Atlanto-axial joint

61

Movements that are in the proximal radioulnar joint

- Supination and pronation

62

Movement in the atlanto-axial joint

Turning head side to side to say "no"

63

- Oval shaped projection fits into oval depression
- BIAXIAL

Condylar joint

64

Flex/extend or abduct/adduct is possible

Biaxial

65

Examples of where condylar joints are

- Wrist
- Metacarpophalangeal joints for digits 2 and 5

66

One bone saddled-shaped; other bone fits as a person would sitting in that saddle

Saddle joint

67

Why is the saddle joint biaxial?

- Circumduction allows tip of thumb travel in circle
- Opposition allows tip of thumb to touch tip of other fingers

68

Examples of saddle joints

- Trapezium of carpus and metacarpal of the thumb

69

Ball fitting into a cuplike depression

Ball and socket joint

70

Why is the ball and socket joint multiaxial?

Because of...
- Flexion/extension
- Abduction/adduction
- Rotation

71

Examples of ball and socket joints

- Shoulder joint
- Hip joint

72

- Hinge joint
- Condyles slide back and forth along sockets
- 2 synovial joints

Temporomandibular joint

73

What is the TMJ between?

Between the condylar process of mandible and mandibular fossa

74

Where do the vertebrate articulate?

Between the superior and inferior articular processes

75

What kind of joint is in intervertebral articulations?

Plane joint

76

What does intervertebral articulations restrict?

Restrict lateral movement

77

These allow flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation in the intervertebral articulations

Discs

78

Two parts to the intervertebral disc and the components to each part

1. Anulus fibrous: fibrocartilage
2. Nucleus pulposus: 75% water, hyaluronic acid, reticular and elastic fibers

79

- Slipped disc
- Nucleus pulposus breaks through annulus fibrous
- Movements of vertebral column compress nucleus

Herniated disc

80

Describe the joints in the shoulder

- Glenohumeral joint

81

What are the components to the Glenohumeral joint?

Head of humerus meets glenoid cavity

82

The glenoid cavity is covered by what?

Glenoid labrum

83

A ringe of dense irregular connective tissue attached to the margin of the glenoid cavity

Glenoid labrum

84

Two joints in the elbow

1. Humerus and ulna (hinge, flexion/extension)
2. Ulna and Radius (pivot and pronation/supination)

85

Joints in the wrist and hand

- Radiocarpal joint
- Intercarpal
- Carpometacarpal
- Metacarpophalangeal
- Interphalangeal

86

Movements in the radiocarpal joint

- Between radius and 3 prox. carpels
- Flexion/extension
- Abduction/adduction
- Circumduction

87

Movement in intercarpal joints

Gliding

88

Movement in the carpometacarpal joints

Thumb: saddle
Other digits: plane (sliding)

89

Movement in metacarpophalangeal joints

Hand to fingers (condylar)
- Abbduction/adduction
- Flexion/ extension

90

Movement in interphalangeal joints

Fingers (hinge)
- Flexion/extnsion

91

Two bones making up the hip joint

1. Femoral head
2. Acetabulum of pelvis

92

Extends the size of the acetabulum

Labrum

93

Movement in hip joint

ball and socket

94

The knee joint must ...

- Support body mass
- Have up to 160 degrees motion
- Be unobstructed by muscle (like hip)
- Lack strong yet limiting ligaments (like ankle)

95

Two joints in the knee

1. Tibiofemoral joint
2. Patellofemoral joint

96

Movement in the tibiofemoral joint

Hinge
- Flexion/extension
- Some rotation (less stable than most hinge joints)

97

Movements in the patellofemoral joint

Plane - sliding

98

Ankle joint

Talocrural joint

99

Ankle and foot joints

- Tibiotalar
- Tibiofibular
- Firbulotalor

100

Movement in the ankle and the foot bones

Dorsi/plantiflexion

101

Foot joints

- Intersarsal
- Tarsometatarsal
- Metatarsophalangeal
- Interphalangeal

102

The plane joints between the tarsals

Intertarsals

103

Plane joints between tarsals and metatarsals

Tarsometatarsal

104

Condylar joints between metatarsals and digits

Metatarsophalangeal

105

Hinge joints in digits

Interphalangeal