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Flashcards in Chapter 26 Deck (145):
1

Function of the gonads

The organs that produce gametes, the eggs & sperm that unite to form a new individual

2

What are the male & female gonads

Male-Testes, which produce sperm (spermatozoa)
Female- Ovaries, which produce eggs or ova (singular ovum)

3

What is sexually dimorphic?

(di-two + amorphous, form), meaning that males & females are physically distinct. This distinction can be blurred by dress & hairstyle, but these are cultural acquisitions

4

The male & female organs consist of 3 sets of structures

1) The gonads
2) The internal genitalia
3) The external genitalia

5

The internal genitalia consist of?

Accessory glands & ducts that connect the gonads with the outside environment

6

The external genitalia consist of?

All external reproductive structures

7

Sexual development is programmed in the?

Humane genome

8

Each nucleated cell of the body except eggs & sperm contains?

46 chromosomes. This set of chromosomes is called the diploid number because the chromosomes occur in pairs: 22 matched or homologous, pairs of autosomes plus one pair of sex chromosomes

9

Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes which consist of?

22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. X & Y chromosomes means that these came from a male

10

What do the chromosomes do?

The 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes direct development of the human body form & of variable characteristics such as hair color & blood type. The two sex chromosomes, designated as either X or Y, contain genes that direct development of internal & external sex organs

11

Which one is larger, X or Y?

The X chromosome is larger than the Y chromosome & includes many genes that are missing from the Y chromosome

12

Eggs & sperm are haploid cells meaning?

They have 23 chromosomes, one from each matched pair & one sex chromosome. When the eggs & sperm unite, the resulting zygote then contains 46 chromosomes of each matched pair coming from the mother & father

13

XX means

Female

14

XY means

Male

15

What happens to a zygote that inherits only a Y chromosome (YO)?

They will die because the larger X chromosome contains essential genes that are missing from the Y chromosome

16

What happens to a zygote that gets only one X chromosome (XO)?

Known as Turner's syndrome. It will develop into a female. Two X chromosomes are needed for normal female reproductive function however

17

Having an extra chromosome on #21 causes?

Down syndrome

18

Reproductive structures do not develop until?

The 7th week of development

19

What directs some single cell zygotes to become males and others to become females?

Sex determination depends on the presence or absence of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome, or SRY gene

20

In the presence of sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) what happens? (Y means only male)

The bipotential gonads develop into testes

21

What happens in the absence of sex-determining region of Y chromosome (SRY)?

In the absence of the SRY gene and under the direction of multiple female specific genes, the gonads develop into ovaries

22

Before differentiation, the embryonic tissues are considered bipotential because they?

Cannot be morphologically identified as male or female

23

Tissues that can become either male or female

Bipotential

24

The bipotential gonad has an outer cortex & an inner medulla. Under the influence of the appropriate developmental signal, the medulla will develop into?
In the absence of the signal, the cortex will differentiate into?

Presence of signal, medulla develops into a testis
Absence of signal, cortex develops into ovarian tissue

25

The bipotential internal genitalia consist of 2 pairs of accessory ducts

1) Wolffian ducts (mesonephric) derived from the embryonic kidney
2) Mullerian ducts (paramesonephric ducts)
As development proceeds along either male or female lines, one pair of ducts develops while the other degenerates

26

Where is SRY gene found?

Only in males only on their Y chromosome

27

The SRY gene produces a protein (testis-determing factor or TDF) that does what?

Binds to DNA & activates additional genes, including SOX9, WT1, & SF1. The protein products of these genes direct development of the gonadal medulla into testis

28

Once the testes differentiate, they begin to secrete there hormones that influence development of the male internal & external genitalia.

1) Testicular Sertoli cells secrete glycoprotein anti-Mullerian hormone
2) Leydig cells secrete testosterone & its derivative dihydrotestosterone. These two androgens are the dominant steroid hormones in males

29

Essential for production of testosterone

Leydig cells

30

Anti-Mullerian hormone causes?

Regression of Mullerian duct

31

Testosterone controls?

1) Development of Wolffian duct into accessory structures
2) Development of male external genitalia (via DHT)

32

In the developing fetus, anti-Mullerian hormone causes the embryonic Mullerian ducts to?

Regress

33

In the developing fetus testosterone converts?

The Wolffian ducts into male accessory structures: epididymis, vas deferens, & seminal vesicle

34

Later in fetal development, testosterone controls migration of?

The testes from the abdomen into the scrotum, or scrotal sac. The remaining male sex characteristics, such as differentiation of the external genitalia, are controlled primarily by DHT

35

The enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to DHT

5a-reductase

36

In females, embryos, which have no SRY gene, the cortex of the bipotential gonad develops into?

Ovarian tissue

37

Symptoms of turner syndrome?

Infertile b/l streak gonads/ovarian agenesis
-primary amenorrhea
-short stature
-sexual infantilism
-high risk of congenital heart defects
-webbed neck

38

- Female sex
- May only exist in some of the body’s cells
- 1 in 2500 girls
- Infertile & tend to be short in stature, but other symptoms vary extensively

XO = Turner’s syndrome

39

During gamete development each daughter cell takes? of

- One of each homologue
- Creates haploid cells
- 23 chromosomes

40

In the absences of testicular AMH (anti-Mullerian hormone) what happens?

The mullerian ducts develop into the upper portion of the vagina, the uterus, & the fallopian tubes

41

Also called oviducts

Fallopian tubes

42

Without testosterone, the Wolffian ducts?

Degenerate

43

Without DHT, the external genitalia?

Take on female characteristics

44

Week 0-8

Embryo

45

Week 8 - birth

Fetus

46

Differentiation is (basic points)

1) Developing specific sex characteristics
2) Takes place in 2nd month of embryonic development
3) Development of different sex organs
- Gonads (organs that produce sex cells)
- Internal genitalia (glands and ducts that connect the gonads to external genitalia)
- External genitalia (external reproductive structures)

47

Presence or absence of SRY (basic points)

Presence of SRY:
- Production of TDF
- Indifferent gonads become testes
Absence of SRY
- No TDF
- Indifferent gonads become ovaries

48

- Stimulates development of Wolffian duct

Testosterone

49

- Aka: Mullerian Inhibition Factor
- Stimulates regression of Mullerian duct

Anti-Mullerian Hormone

50

Female genitalia

Mullerian duct

51

Male genitalia

Wolffian duct

52

What happens in the bipotential stage: 6 week fetus

The internal reproductive organs have the potential to develop into male or female structures

53

Mullerian duct becomes?

Fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, & upper 1/2 of vagina (AMH absent)

54

If female:
Gonad (Cortex)-
Gonad (Medulla)-
Wolffian duct-
Mullerian duct-

Gonad (Cortex)- forms- Ovary
Gonad (Medulla)- Regresses
Wolffian duct- Regresses (testosterone absent)
Mullerian duct- Becomes fallopian tube, uterus, & upper 1/2 of vagina (AMH absent)

55

If male:
Gonad (Cortex)-
Gonad (Medulla)-
Wolffian duct-
Mullerian duct-

Gonad (Cortex)- Regresses
Gonad (Medulla)- Form testis
Wolffian duct-Forms epididymis, vas deferens, & seminal vesicle (testosterone present)
Mullerian duct- Regresses (AMH present)

56

Development of internal organs in females:
10 weeks what happens?
At birth?

10 WEEKS
1) Gonadal cortex becomes ovary in the absence of SRY protein & under the influence of female-specific genes
2) Absence of testosterone causes Wolffian duct to degenerate
AT BIRTH
3) Absence of anti-Mullerian hormone to become the fallopian tube, uterus, & upper part of the vagina

57

Development of internal organs in males:
10 weeks what happens?
At birth?

10 WEEKS
1) SRY protein in male embryo directs the medulla of the bipotential gonad to develop into testis
2) Anti-Mullerian hormone from testis causes the Mullerian ducts to disappear
AT BIRTH
3) Testosterone from testis coverts Wolffian duct into seminal vesicle, vas deferens, & epididymis. DHT controls prostate development

58

Biologically there is sexually dimorphism meaning there are two distinct sexes, male & female, and its biologically based on?

Gonads because that is where the gametes are produced

59

What determines sex is what is?

Inherited

60

Autosomes code for?

Everything else in the body other than sex

61

The sex chromosomes can be?
During gamete development?

X and/or Y
Each daughter cell takes half of the sets from one parent and half the set from the other & combines them

62

During development, the gametes are developed into?

Haploid cells then when fertilization occurs the egg becomes a diploid cell because it takes in the DNA from the sperm

63

The female parent can only give an?

X chromosome because female is XX

64

The male parent can give?

Has an X & Y so can pass on either one. If it is a Y chromosome it will be a male offspring

65

Not all zygotes end up with 46 chromosomes. Sometimes in cell division to form gametes occasionally there is a mix up where?

24 of the chromosomes might go to where only 23 were supposed to go leaving one with 22 instead of 23.
Sometimes what is passed on isn't exactly 23 pairs & so you end up with chromosomal disorders

66

During gametogenesis homologous chromosomes may
separate or sister chromatids may not separate.
Example is?

Down’s syndrome- there is an extra chromosome #21 (47 total chromosomes instead of 46)

67

sex chromosome variations § XXY = male (Klinefelter’s syndrome)

sex chromosome variations § XXY = male (Klinefelter’s syndrome)

68

sex chromosome variations with XXY

Male Klinefelter’s syndrome
- Y chromosome leads to development of male
- Most common sex chromosome disorder
- 1 in 500 males have XXY, only about half have syndrome
-Small testicles, reduced fertility

69

Testis determining factor

TDF

70

Where is the gene for the protein TDF (testis determining factor)?

On the Y chromosome. So if you don't have a Y chromosome (males) you're not going to have a TDF/YDF

71

Leydig cells that secrete

Testosterone

72

Sertoli cells secrete?

Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH)

73

.

Testis-determining factor signal molecule is going to bind to receptors
Testosterone
Anti-mullerian hormone

74

For the male, because testosterone is present from developing gonads that then leads to?

The development of the internal structures. Whereas the male is also producing the anti-Mullerian hormone.

75

In the female because there is no anti-Mullerian hormone

The Mullerian duct developed into the female structures

76

Initially because of the presence of the Y chromosome (SRY protein) the development of which part of the gonadal tissue (cortex or medulla) will develop?
What happens in the absence?

Medulla
In the absence of the SRY/TDF protein the cortex will develop into ovaries

77

Anti-Mullerian causes which duct to regress or degenerate?
In the absence of anti-Mullerian?

Mullerian duct
Absence of anti-Mullerian- Mullerian duct develops

78

Which duct does disintegrate in the female?

Wolffian because there is no testosterone to stimulate growth

79

What had to be present for the development of external male genitalia?

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)

80

What does 5a-reductase catalyze?

The conversion of testosterone to DHT

81

What does aromatase do?

An enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, the female sex hormones

82

Sex development is also referred to as

intersex

83

The signal molecules, receptors and enzymes involved in sex development

1) Signal molecules: testosterone, DHT, anti-Mullerian hormone, SRY protein
2) Receptors for these signal molecules
3) Enzymes: 5-alpha reductase, aromatase

84

In addition to chromosomal disorders, there are genetic disorders that can influence development of?

Any organ system

85

Variations in sex development is?

Having mis-matched internal and external sex organs or inconsistent gonads

86

Biologically we refer to sex based on the presence of?
What happens if certain tissues of the embryonic tissue develop differently? What if there are lack of receptors in certain cells but not in others?

Specific gonads

87

True Hermaphroditism (having the sex organisms of both sexes)

From a biological perspective means they have both gonad types. So something in the signaling pathway is different in some cells than others

88

True Hermaphroditism (basic points)

1) Expression of SRY gene in some embryonic cells but not others
2) Extremely rare
3) Possible types
- One ovary, one testis
- Ovotestes (part ovary, part testis on both sides) (certain cells were converted to ovaries so the cortex developed & in other cells the medulla developed)
- Ovotestes on one side only, testis or ovary on the other (most common)

89

Pseudohermphroditism is

For example growing up a girl then finding out at puberty that your genitals are developing into males. These men have the internal sex organs of a male but inherit a gene that causes a deficiency in one of the male hormones. They are bone with external genitalia that appear feminine, & they are raised as girls. At puberty the period when a person makes the transition from being non reproductive to being reproductive, pseudohermaphrodites begin to secrete more male hormones. As a result they develop some, but not all, of the characteristics of men.

90

Female congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an example of?

Pseudohermphroditism

91

- Gonads and external genitalia don’t match
- Have testes or ovaries (not both)
- Underdeveloped penis or overdeveloped clitoris

Pseudohermphroditism

92

Besides the gonads where else in the body (males & females) do we produce estrogen, progesterone, testosterone?

The adrenal cortex

93

Steroid hormones are produced here including the sex

Adrenal cortex

94

What happens if there is excess tissue growth in the female of the adrenal cortex?

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (excess tissue growth) so there would be increased sources of the steroid hormones like estrogen, progesterone, testosterone. Because of this she will end up having androgens (male sex hormones) & it will end up during embryonic development as having masculinized genitalia, so the clitoris will be enlarged & the labia will be underdeveloped

95

- Excessive secretion of androgens from adrenal cortex
- “Masculinized” genitalia
- Enlarged clitoris, under developed labia

Female Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Can be treated with a reduction in adrenal tissue

96

Males Testicular Feminization Syndrome

A male will have normal testes but they never descend, they remain inside the body & the reason because they are lacking the gene, therefore they are lacking the receptors for testosterone. They have female genitalia developed. They have a vagina without a uterus. Develop breasts. But because they have a vagina they are thought from birth to be females & its not until they reach puberty that they are unable to have a menstrual cycle & are infertile

97

Males Testicular Feminization Syndrome (main points)

1) Have normal testes that remain in the body cavity
2) Lack testosterone receptors
3) Female genitalia develop
4) Vagina without uterus
5) Testosterone converted to estrogen at puberty, breast development
6) Appears to be female who does not menstruate and is infertile

98

The condition in males 5-a-reductase deficiency

Males that lack the enzyme5-a-reductase which converts testosterone to DHT, so lacking this enzyme is what is responsible for the external genitalia so even though everything is normal inside there is a poorly developed penis & scrotum

99

5-a-reductase

Convertes testosterone to DHT males need DHT for the external genitalia

100

5-α-reductase deficiency main points

1) Lacking the enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydroxytestosterone (DHT)
2) DHT is the active form of the hormone for external genitalia
development
3) Normal epididymides, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts
4) Poorly developed penis and scrotum

101

In the presence of aromatase testosterone can become?

Estradiol which is estrogen (high concentration of estrogen & the most potent form of estrogen in the female)

102

- Sex cell production
- In utero to puberty

GAMETOGENESIS

103

Describe the gametogenesis process main points

1) Primary gamete
- Cells with 46 chromosomes, each with sister chromatids
- Diploid cells, duplicate copies of DNA
2) Secondary gamete
- Cells with 23 chromosomes, each with sister chromatids
- Haploid, duplicate copies of DNA
3) Final stage gamete
- Cells with 23 chromosomes, single chromatid
- Haploid, single copy of DNA

104

What is secreted from the hypothalamus for hormonal control of spermatogenesis

GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing-hormone) which controls secretion of two anterior pituitary gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) & Luteinizing hormone (LH)

105

In which structure are the receptors for GnRH?

Anterior pituitary

106

What does the anterior pituitary release?

Both Lutenizing hormone (LH) & Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

107

Development of sperm is stimulated by?

FSH

108

The LH stimulates the?

Leydig cells to secrete testosterone

109

Testosterone not only influences secondary sex characteristics but it also enhances the?

Activity of the sertoli cells for sperm production

110

Steroid hormone synthesis for the ovaries & testis

Ovary- Progesterone & Estrogen
Testis- Testosterone

111

Process of GnRH to spermatocyte maturation

GnRH > FSH > Sertoli cells > spermatocyte maturation

112

Process of GnRH to sex characteristics

GnRH > LH > Leydig cells > testosterone > sex characteristics

113

The female does not only have to produce games but she has to develop the?

Whole environment in which another organism can grow. Its not just egg development, its building the housing for potential pregnancy

114

How many days generally are in a ovarian phase?

28 days

115

The very first day of the ovarian phase/cycle is noted by the onset of?

Menses (the sleuthing off, the bleeding) of the uterine wall within the first 5-7 days then it starts to grow again in case of pregnancy

116

Why is it called the follicular phase of the menstraul cycle?

Because it is when the follicle is really developing (the follicle is a bunch of supported cells around egg)

117

Granulosa cells secrete?

Estrogen

118

Why is it called luteal phase of the menstrual cycle?

(FIG. 26.10)
Because that the leftover of the follicle becomes the corpus luteum so thats why its called the luteal phase

119

The cells that make up the follicle & then the corpus luteum are really important for?

Steroid hormone production

120

Which structure is responsible for producing estrogen the first two weeks?
What are the cells called?

The follicle
Cells that produce estrogen- granulosa cells

121

Granulosa cell

Cell of ovarian follicle that secretes estrogen

122

FSH is secreted from?

Anterior pituitary

123

During the menstrual cycle FSH is lowest during?
Highest?

(FIG. 26.10)
Lowest-Luteal phase
Highest- Follicular phase because its helping the follicle develop & the more the follicle develops the more granulosa cells there are and the more granulosa cells there are the more estrogen & there reaches a critical point in estrogen feeding back to the hypothalamus & the anterior pituitary that stimulates the surge in lutenizing hormone (LH) which stimulates ovulation

124

Responsible for the development of the menstrual follicle

FSH (follicle stimulating hormone

125

3 phases of the menstrual Cycle

1) Follicular phase
2) Ovulation
3) Luteal phase

126

Follicle growth in ovary (egg matures)

Follicular phase

127

Ripened follicles and release of oocyte(s)

Ovulation

128

Luteal phase

Ruptured follicle into corpus luteum in preparation for pregnancy

129

What happens during menses?

No pregnancy & Bleeding from uterus

130

What happens during proliferative phase?

New layer of endometrium in preparation of pregnancy

131

What happens during secretory phase?

Conversion of endometrium to secretory structure

132

Surge in LH stimulates?

Ovulation

133

Progesterone is coming from the?

corpus luteum

134

As the corpus luteum develops & matures it produces & secretes?

(FIG. 26.10) Both progesterone and estrogen which is why there is another spike after estrogen came back down.

135

Progesterone takes over during which phase?

The luteal phase as being really important for the endometrium & preparing it in case of pregnancy

136

What causes/stimulates menses?

The drop in hormones progesterone, & estrogen

137

Produce androgens that are converted to estrogen by granulosa cells

Theca cells

138

Hormone regulation in females

1) Begins with onset of bleeding (menses)
2) GnRH release
3) LH release steady
4) FSH release gradually increases
5) Growth of follicle
6) Granulosa cells secrete estrogen
-Autocrine: estrogen to increase FSH receptors and growth of granulosa cells
- Negative feedback to hypothalamus by estrogen
- Negative feedback by AMH to other follicles (limits a
single follicle development)

139

Granulosa cell growth leads to?

1) Very high estrogen production and release
2) Peak in estrogen stimulates LH release (surge)
3) LH surge is the primary stimulus for ovulation
4) Estrogen has begun preparing the uterus for pregnancy
5) The cervix produces stringy mucus- to create channels for the sperm to follow up into the uterus
6) Ovulation within 1 day of the LH surge

140

Corpus luteum formed from?
Produces?

1) Granulosa and theca cells of the follicle
2) Produces progesterone in larger, then more estrogen during the luteal phase
- Negative feedback to hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
- Prevents signals that would lead to development of new follicle
3) Progesterone
- stimulates further development of endometrium in case of pregnancy
- Increased vasculature
- Storage of fuels ( glycogen, lipids)
- Stimulates thickening of mucus to block cervical opening (reduce entry of bacteria or sperm)

141

What happens during the Corpus luteum phase

1) No pregnancy
2) Becomes corpus albicans (about 12 days after ovulation
3) Stops producing steroid hormones
- After 2 days without steroids to maintain the endometrium, menstruation begins
- Slough off the cells of the endometrium
- Start new cycle
4) Also, without steroid hormone negative feedback gone, hypothalamus begins secreting GnRH
5) Start of the new cycle (menstruation = day 1)
6) Pregnancy
- Secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) by the placenta keeps corpus luteum active secreting progesterone (placenta takes over after several weeks)

142

Hormonal control follicular phase

1) FSH stimulates follicular development
2) Maturation to secondary and tertiary follicle
3) Granulosa cells produce estrogen
- Low to moderate levels of estrogen provide negative feedback- decreases FSH and LH secretion
- Late in the phase, high estrogen levels increase GnRH release (positive feedback loop)
4) LH stimulates thecal cells to produce androgens

143

Hormonal control ovulation

1) High levels of estrogen
2) LH surge and FSH spike
3) Egg release
4) High levels of inhibit which Inhibits production of FSH
5) Decrease new follicle development
6) Low levels of progesterone
7) Positive feedback
8) GnRH and LH

144

Hormonal control luteal phase

1) Granulosa & theca cells form corpus luteum which Secretes progesterone & estrogen
2) High levels of progesterone (and estrogen) maintain
endometrium
3) Inhibin continues to limit new follicular development

145

Hormonal control late luteal phase

1) Pregnancy
- Corpus luteum maintains high levels of progesterone,
estrogen, and inhibin
2) No pregnancy
- Corpus luteum regresses and disintegrates
- Decreased levels of progesterone, estrogen, and inhibit 3) Menses
- High levels of FSH and LH
- New follicle development