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Flashcards in Lab 15 Deck (73):
1

Acrosomal reaction

Is when the capacitated sperm heads release enzymes from the acrosomal in the sperm head when it comes into contact with the egg

2

Blastocyste

Developing embryo reaches the uterus, a hallow ball of about 100 cells

3

Capacitation

The change undergone by sperm in the female reproductive tract that enables them to swim rapidly and fertilize an egg

4

Cleavage

Series of synchronized mitotic cell divisions of the fertilized egg that results in the formation of blastomeres & changes single cell zygote into an embryo

5

Corpus luteum

Yellowish mass that secretes hormones that continues preparations for pregnancy. Produces estrogen and progesterone after ovulation

6

Differentiation

Developmental process during which cells take on different forms and functions

7

Diploid

Having the basic chromosome number doubled. A cell or organism consisting of 2 sets of chromosome, 1 from mom, 1 from dad. In diploid state the haploid number is doubled

8

Embryo

Multicellular organism that primarily undergoes extensive & rapid growth and differentiation between the time of fertilization and fetal state in lower forms

9

Fertilization

Union of two gametes where the somatic chromosome number is restored & the development of a new individual is initiated

10

Fetus

Unborn or unhatched vertebrate. Developing human from usually two months after conception of birth

11

Gamete

Mature male or female germ cell usually possessing a haploid chromosome set and capable of initiating formation of a new diploid individual by fusion with a gamete of opposite sex

12

Gastrulation

The process of becoming or of forming a gastrula

13

Gestation period

The length of time during which gestation takes place

14

Haploid

Having the gamete number of chromosomes or half the number characteristic of somatic cells. Having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.

15

Implantation

The act or process of implanting or state of being implanted. Process of attachment of the embryo to the maternal uterine wall

16

Inner cell mass

Portion of the blastocyst of a mammalian embryo that is destined to become the embryo proper

17

Oogenesis

Formation and maturation of the egg also called ovogenesis

18

Ovulation

Release of a mature egg/ovum from its follicle in the ovary

19

Parturition

The action or process of giving birth

20

Polyspermy

Fertilization of an egg by more than one sperm. Entrance of several spermatozoa into one egg

21

Spermatogenesis

Process of male gamete formation including formation of a primary spermatocyte from a spermatogonium, meiotic division of spermatocyte, & transformation of 4 resulting spermatids into spermatozoa

22

Tubal ligation

Ligation of the fallopian tubes that by preventing passage of ova from the ovaries to the uterus as a method of female sterilization

23

Vasectomy

Surgical division or resection of all or part of the vas deferens usually to induce sterility

24

Zona pellucida

Protective transparent more or less elastic noncellular glycoprotein outer layer coat or envelope of a mammalian ovum often traversed by numerous radiating striae

25

Zygote

Fertilized egg. Cell formed by 2 gametes; the developing individual produced from such a cell

26

The male gonads or testes are made up of these coiled structures where sperm is produced

Seminiferous tubules

27

Sperm migrate to this structure where they mature and are stored temporarily

Epididymis

28

In preparation of ejaculation, the sperm move along this tube to the ampulla

Vas deferens

29

Secretions from this structure are added at the

Seminal vesicle

30

A milky solution that contains a buffer, enzymes and nutrients is added to the semen by this gland

Prostate gland

31

Along with other secretions, this gland secretes mucus into the tract

Urethra

32

Sperm can live for ____ days in the female reproductive tract

5-6 days

33

Eggs or ova are produced, stored and mature in the female gonads called

Ovary

34

Ova mature inside of this bundle of cells

ova mature in fluid filled chambers called ovarian follicles

35

Typical menstrual cycle lasts ____ days

28 days

36

Maturing follicles secrete this hormone

Estrogen

37

When estrogen levels spike around day 12, there is a surge in ____________ secretion from the anterior pituitary

Luteinizing hormone

38

The ejection of the oocyte from the ovarian follicle is called?

?

39

Cilia on the inside surface of these fingerlike projections at the end of the fallopian tube help to draw the egg into the tube

Fimbriae

40

The egg lives for ______, and if not fertilized will be removed along with the uterine lining during menstruation

12-24 hours

41

The release of enzymes from the head of the sperm onto the oocyte's outer layer is called the?

The acrosomal reaction

42

Through polymerization of this protein, an acrosomal process extends toward the vitelline envelope

Bindin

43

In order for the egg to accept the sperm, the protein ______ found on the outside of the acrosomal process must specifically bind to receptors on the oocyte membrane

Bindin

44

After the plasma membranes of the sperm and the egg fuse, sodium diffuses into the egg. Depolarization creates the first step in preventing multiple sperm from fertilizing the egg. This prevention step is called the?

Fast block to polyspermy

45

Once all steps are taken to prevent more than one sperm from fertilizing the egg, the egg now creates a __________ in order to draw the sperm's nucleus into the egg

Fertilization cone

46

A cell (as with this fertilized egg) that has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total) is called a?

Diploid cell

47

The technical name of a fertilized egg is a?

Diploid zygote

48

Fertilization occurs here in the fallopian tube

Ampulla

49

Sperm can reach the egg in

10-15 minutes

50

Cell division following fertilization is called?

Cleavage

51

The solid mass of cells formed as it moves along the fallopian tube is called a?

Morula

52

IN the uterine cavity, the mass of cells becomes hollow, a structure called the?

Blastocyst

53

This cell mass becomes the placenta and embryonic membranes

Blastocyst

54

This inner cell mass becomes the

Embryo

55

These hormones, produced by the corpus luteum, thicken the endometrium

Progesterone and estrogen

56

Implantation begins around day ____ following fertilization

day 7

57

Pregnancy is initiated when this process takes place

Implantation into the wall of the uterus

58

The formation of the three germ layers is called

Gastrulation

59

The three germ layers are

Ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm

60

This germ layer will become the skin and structures of the nervous system

Ectoderm

61

This germ layer will become the bone, muscle, and connective tissue

Mesoderm

62

This germ layer will become the linings of the respiratory and digestive tracts and the liver and pancreas

Endoderm

63

A thin-walled hollow structure in early embryonic development that contains a cluster of cells called the inner cell mass from which the embryo arises. The outer layer of cells gives rise to the placenta and other supporting tissues needed for fetal development within the uterus while the inner cell mass cells gives rise to the tissues of the body.

Blastocyst

64

The change undergone by spermatozoa in the female genital tract that enables them to penetrate and fertilize an egg.

Capacitation

65

A process in sexual reproduction that involves the union of male (sperm) and female (ovum) gametes (each with a single, haploid set of chromosomes) to produce a diploid zygote.

Fertilization

66

The embryo in the stage following the blastula or blastocyst; the simplest type consists of two layers of cells, the ectoderm and endoderm

Gastrula

67

Then endoderm gives rise to?

The digestive & respiratory tracts and associated structures

68

The ectoderm gives rise to?

The skin, sense organs, and nervous system

69

The mesoderm gives rise to?

The skeleton, circulatory system, muscles, excretory system, and most of the reproductive system

70

During this time, the three embryonic tissue layers move into the positions where they begin to develop into the adult organs and tissues

Gastrulation

71

The release of the ripe egg (ovum) from the ovary. The egg is released when the cavity surrounding it (the follicle) breaks open in response to a hormonal signal. Occurs around 14 or 15 days from the first day of the woman's last menstrual cycle. When this occurs, the ovum moves into the Fallopian tube and becomes available for fertilization

Ovulation

72

The strong membrane that forms around an ovum as it develops in the ovary. The membrane remains in place during the egg's travel through the fallopian tube. To fertilize the egg, a sperm must penetrate it. If fertilization takes place, the it disappears, to permit implantation in the uterus.

Zona pellucida

73

Fertilization takes place when the spermatozoon has successfully entered the?

Ovum and the two sets of genetic material carried by the gametes, fuse together, resulting in the zygote, (a single diploid cell). This usually takes place in the ampulla of one of the fallopian tubes.