Flashcards in Lab 15 Deck (73):
Is when the capacitated sperm heads release enzymes from the acrosomal in the sperm head when it comes into contact with the egg
Developing embryo reaches the uterus, a hallow ball of about 100 cells
The change undergone by sperm in the female reproductive tract that enables them to swim rapidly and fertilize an egg
Series of synchronized mitotic cell divisions of the fertilized egg that results in the formation of blastomeres & changes single cell zygote into an embryo
Yellowish mass that secretes hormones that continues preparations for pregnancy. Produces estrogen and progesterone after ovulation
Developmental process during which cells take on different forms and functions
Having the basic chromosome number doubled. A cell or organism consisting of 2 sets of chromosome, 1 from mom, 1 from dad. In diploid state the haploid number is doubled
Multicellular organism that primarily undergoes extensive & rapid growth and differentiation between the time of fertilization and fetal state in lower forms
Union of two gametes where the somatic chromosome number is restored & the development of a new individual is initiated
Unborn or unhatched vertebrate. Developing human from usually two months after conception of birth
Mature male or female germ cell usually possessing a haploid chromosome set and capable of initiating formation of a new diploid individual by fusion with a gamete of opposite sex
The process of becoming or of forming a gastrula
The length of time during which gestation takes place
Having the gamete number of chromosomes or half the number characteristic of somatic cells. Having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
The act or process of implanting or state of being implanted. Process of attachment of the embryo to the maternal uterine wall
Inner cell mass
Portion of the blastocyst of a mammalian embryo that is destined to become the embryo proper
Formation and maturation of the egg also called ovogenesis
Release of a mature egg/ovum from its follicle in the ovary
The action or process of giving birth
Fertilization of an egg by more than one sperm. Entrance of several spermatozoa into one egg
Process of male gamete formation including formation of a primary spermatocyte from a spermatogonium, meiotic division of spermatocyte, & transformation of 4 resulting spermatids into spermatozoa
Ligation of the fallopian tubes that by preventing passage of ova from the ovaries to the uterus as a method of female sterilization
Surgical division or resection of all or part of the vas deferens usually to induce sterility
Protective transparent more or less elastic noncellular glycoprotein outer layer coat or envelope of a mammalian ovum often traversed by numerous radiating striae
Fertilized egg. Cell formed by 2 gametes; the developing individual produced from such a cell
The male gonads or testes are made up of these coiled structures where sperm is produced
Sperm migrate to this structure where they mature and are stored temporarily
In preparation of ejaculation, the sperm move along this tube to the ampulla
Secretions from this structure are added at the
A milky solution that contains a buffer, enzymes and nutrients is added to the semen by this gland
Along with other secretions, this gland secretes mucus into the tract
Sperm can live for ____ days in the female reproductive tract
Eggs or ova are produced, stored and mature in the female gonads called
Ova mature inside of this bundle of cells
ova mature in fluid filled chambers called ovarian follicles
Typical menstrual cycle lasts ____ days
Maturing follicles secrete this hormone
When estrogen levels spike around day 12, there is a surge in ____________ secretion from the anterior pituitary
The ejection of the oocyte from the ovarian follicle is called?
Cilia on the inside surface of these fingerlike projections at the end of the fallopian tube help to draw the egg into the tube
The egg lives for ______, and if not fertilized will be removed along with the uterine lining during menstruation
The release of enzymes from the head of the sperm onto the oocyte's outer layer is called the?
The acrosomal reaction
Through polymerization of this protein, an acrosomal process extends toward the vitelline envelope
In order for the egg to accept the sperm, the protein ______ found on the outside of the acrosomal process must specifically bind to receptors on the oocyte membrane
After the plasma membranes of the sperm and the egg fuse, sodium diffuses into the egg. Depolarization creates the first step in preventing multiple sperm from fertilizing the egg. This prevention step is called the?
Fast block to polyspermy
Once all steps are taken to prevent more than one sperm from fertilizing the egg, the egg now creates a __________ in order to draw the sperm's nucleus into the egg
A cell (as with this fertilized egg) that has 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 total) is called a?
The technical name of a fertilized egg is a?
Fertilization occurs here in the fallopian tube
Sperm can reach the egg in
Cell division following fertilization is called?
The solid mass of cells formed as it moves along the fallopian tube is called a?
IN the uterine cavity, the mass of cells becomes hollow, a structure called the?
This cell mass becomes the placenta and embryonic membranes
This inner cell mass becomes the
These hormones, produced by the corpus luteum, thicken the endometrium
Progesterone and estrogen
Implantation begins around day ____ following fertilization
Pregnancy is initiated when this process takes place
Implantation into the wall of the uterus
The formation of the three germ layers is called
The three germ layers are
Ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
This germ layer will become the skin and structures of the nervous system
This germ layer will become the bone, muscle, and connective tissue
This germ layer will become the linings of the respiratory and digestive tracts and the liver and pancreas
A thin-walled hollow structure in early embryonic development that contains a cluster of cells called the inner cell mass from which the embryo arises. The outer layer of cells gives rise to the placenta and other supporting tissues needed for fetal development within the uterus while the inner cell mass cells gives rise to the tissues of the body.
The change undergone by spermatozoa in the female genital tract that enables them to penetrate and fertilize an egg.
A process in sexual reproduction that involves the union of male (sperm) and female (ovum) gametes (each with a single, haploid set of chromosomes) to produce a diploid zygote.
The embryo in the stage following the blastula or blastocyst; the simplest type consists of two layers of cells, the ectoderm and endoderm
Then endoderm gives rise to?
The digestive & respiratory tracts and associated structures
The ectoderm gives rise to?
The skin, sense organs, and nervous system
The mesoderm gives rise to?
The skeleton, circulatory system, muscles, excretory system, and most of the reproductive system
During this time, the three embryonic tissue layers move into the positions where they begin to develop into the adult organs and tissues
The release of the ripe egg (ovum) from the ovary. The egg is released when the cavity surrounding it (the follicle) breaks open in response to a hormonal signal. Occurs around 14 or 15 days from the first day of the woman's last menstrual cycle. When this occurs, the ovum moves into the Fallopian tube and becomes available for fertilization
The strong membrane that forms around an ovum as it develops in the ovary. The membrane remains in place during the egg's travel through the fallopian tube. To fertilize the egg, a sperm must penetrate it. If fertilization takes place, the it disappears, to permit implantation in the uterus.