Flashcards in Lab 11 Deck (100):
Why do the organ systems of the body have to work together?
In order to maintain homeostasis
How is coordination of organ systems achieved?
Through feedback loops that involve varies sensors in the body & specific control centers where information is integrated
Effectors are activated or inactivated as needed in order to?
Adjust the conditions in the body
The cardiovascular system serves as what?
As a major highway for transporting substances from one location to another in the body
Substances that the cardiovascular system transports.
1) Gases (i.e. oxygen, carbon dioxide)
2) Nutrients (i.e. glucose, fats, amino acids)
3) Wastes (i.e. urea, uric acid)
4) Signal molecules (i.e. hormones, neurohormones, cytokines)
The rate of cardiovascular system depends on the?
In the cardiovascular system, the higher the demand for oxygen in a certain area, the blood will move?
Faster to that area
The effectors for altering the flow of blood.
1) Sinoatrial node of the heart (to alter heart rate)
2) The LEFT ventricular contractile cells (to alter stroke volume)
3) The smooth muscle of the arterioles for adjusting the distribution of blood in the body
Vasoconstriction does what?
Restrict blood flow in some areas
Vasodilation does what?
Increases blood flow to some areas
When increased blood flow is required what branch of the CNS is active?
The sympathetic nervous system increases its activity & its neurons secrete norepinephrine to target cells
Increasing the rate of activation of the cells of the SA node will do what?
Increase heart rate
Increasing calcium levels in the left ventricle contractile cells will have what effect?
Increase myocardial contractility (force of contraction) & therefore stroke volume
The immediate & greatest effect on arterioles is?
Local signals (i.e. increased CO2, decreased O2, increased temperature, decreased pH) lead to?
Vasodilation near the working tissues where greater blood flow is needed
The respiratory system plays a critical role in?
Maintaining carbon dioxide, oxygen, & pH levels in the body
Respiration involves 3 steps
1) Gas exchange at the cells
2) Gas exchange at the lungs
Gas exchange at the cells involves
Oxygen leaving & carbon dioxide entering the blood
Gas exchange at the lungs involves
Oxygen entering & carbon dioxide leaving the blood at the alveoli
The process of moving air into & out of the lungs
The movement of gases across membranes at the level of the body tissues & at the alveoli is predictable because of?
The Gas Laws
The term "pressure" is used instead of "___________" when referring to gases
When referring to the amount of an individual gas, it is called the?
Partial pressure of that gas; i.e. partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2) partial pressure of oxygen (Po2)
Gases, whether a mixture or an individual gas, move where?
Down a pressure gradient (from higher pressure to lower pressure)
There is an inverse relationship between the pressure of a gas and the?
Volume of its container
If the volume of a container increased, what would happen to its pressure?
The pressure decreases, and vice versa (Boyle's law)
The total pressure of a mixed gas (i.e. air) is the sum of?
All of the partial pressures of the individual gases. (Daltons law)
Gas exchange at the body cells or alveoli can take place because?
Gases move from a place of higher to lower pressure
The blood returning to the lungs from the systemic circuit is what?
High in carbon dioxide & low in oxygen
When will oxygen move?
From where its higher (the alveolus) to where its lower (the blood)
When will carbon dioxide move?
From where its higher, the blood, to where its lower, the alveolus.
Ventilation provides a clear example of which law?
The process of breathing
The process of breathing (ventilation) manipulates the volume of the?
Thoracic cavity, and therefore the lungs
By increasing the volume of the lungs, the pressure inside does what?
Where does air move? And what is its opposite?
From a place of higher pressure, atmospheric pressure, to a place of lower pressure, alveolar pressure.
As the metabolic rate changes, so too does the?
Oxygen requirement & carbon dioxide production by the working cells
What is the term that means "Oxygen required"
Where do the aerobic pathways take place in the cell?
What are the names of the aerobic pathways?
Citric acid cycle & electron transport system
What are the names of the two anaerobic pathways?
ATP CP System
Where do the anaerobic pathways take place in the cell?
1) What type of cells are the effectors for altering ventilation?
2) What is the efferent pathway to innervate these cells?
3) Which signal molecule will influence these cells?
4) Which specific receptor type is located on these effector cells?
1) Skeletal muscle
2) Somatic motor neuron
Oxygen is used to form _____ at the end of the energy pathway.
Oxygen is used at the very last step of this energy pathway
Electron transport system
Oxygen binds with ___ at the end of the pathway.
Feedback loop for decrease in blood Partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Focus on the respiratory system and ventilation.
Stimulus: decrease partial pressure of carbon dioxide Sensor: Aortic or carotid chemoreceptors
Afferent pathway: Sensory neuron
Integrating center: Medulla oblongata
Efferent pathway: Parasympathetic neuron
Effector: Conducting cells of the sinoatrial node
Effectors action: Potassium channels open, cells hyper polarize, decrease rate of action potentials, decrease heart rate
Response: Increase in blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide
What type of signal molecule binds to receptors on cells that will lead to bronchodilation, and what is the source of this molecule?
Neurohormone from the adrenal medulla
What type of signal molecule binds to receptors on cells that will lead to bronchoconstriction, and what is the source of this molecule?
Neurotransmitter from a parasympathetic neuron
Which signal molecule would bind to receptors of the bronchiole smooth muscle to stimulate bronchodilation?
Under what conditions will bronchoconstriction occur?
What are the specific receptors to which a signal molecule will bind to cause bronchodilation?Which signal molecule would bind to receptors of the bronchiole smooth muscle to stimulate bronchodilation?
Beta-2 adrenergic. The signal molecule is epinephrine
Under what conditions would bronchodilation occur? And why?
Fight-or-flight. Because bronchodilation is under sympathetic control.
What are the specific receptors to which a signal molecule will bind to cause bronchoconstriction?
Which signal molecule will bind to target cells to cause bronchoconstriction? What is the specific receptor for this?
Acetylcholine. The specific receptor is muscarinic
What are the effectors of the cardiovascular system?
Conducting cells of the sinoatrial node, Contractile cells of the left ventricle, Smooth muscle cells of the arterioles
The amount an individual gas is called its ___.
The effector for stroke volume is?
Left ventricular contractile cells
The effector for total peripheral resistance is?
Arteriole smooth muscle
As the volume of the lungs increases the pressure decreases. This is an example of __ law.
The force of the contraction of the heart is called?
The effector for heart rate is?
Sinoatrial node (conducting cells)
The process of breathing is called?
Gases move when there is a pressure ___.
The amount of air left in the lungs after a maximum expiration.
The amount of air breathed in during normal resting inspiration or expiration.
Feedback loop resulting from an increase in blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Focus on the respiratory system & ventilation.
Stimulus: Increase in blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide
Sensor: Aortic or carotid chemoreceptors
Integrating center: Medulla oblongata
Efferent pathway: Somatic motor neuron
Effector: Diaphragm skeletal muscle cells
Effectors action: Increased contraction/relaxation cycle rate, increased rate and depth of ventilation
Response: Decrease in blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide
What are the effectors of the respiratory system?
Skeletal muscle cells of the diaphragm, Smooth muscle cells of the bronchioles
The respiratory has to provide the oxygen that's used at the end of?
The electron transport system in working cells, and has to get rid of the carbon dioxide formed in the citric acid (Krebs) cycle
The effector organs of the respiratory system are within and around the?
The primary structures of regulation within the lungs are the?
Bronchioles, which have a layer of smooth muscle to control the diameter of the airway.
Smooth muscle contraction leads to?
Bronchoconstriction, decreasing the size of the airway & reducing the amount of air that can flow into and out of the lungs
Smooth muscle relaxation leads to? This allows?
Bronchodilation, this opening of the airway would increase the ability of air to flow into and out of the lungs
Major muscle of ventilation
Gases move by diffusion because?
Gases are non polar so they can slip through lipid bilayer
Source of epinephrine
What controls ventilation?
Skeletal muscles control ventilation (breathing) by contracting & relaxing rhythmically
When this bell-shaped muscle contracts, it flattens, thereby increasing volume of the thoracic cavity & decreasing the pressure inside. This creates a vacuum & causes air to be drawn into the lungs (inspiration)
Relaxation of the diaphragm decreases what?
The volume of the thoracic cavity, increasing the pressure inside forcing air out (expiration)
The decrease in volume of the lungs, increases the? Because atmospheric pressure is now less than alveolar pressure, air will move?
There are certain characteristics of the lung tissue that is essential for proper function. The first is the?
Ability to stretch, which is called compliance
During inspiration, the lungs are passively _________-________ as the thoracic cavity expands. During
During expiration, the lung tissue ______, returning to its resting position. The ______ or return from a stretch is due to tissue __________.
As the requirement for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal increases, what else increases?
The rates of ventilation and blood flow also increase
What is the full name of the integrating center that serves both the cardiovascular & respiratory systems?
The more work performed by the cells, the more _____ is required. The more _____ required, the more oxygen must be delivered to and the more carbon dioxide must be removed from those cells
Under more work by the cells that require ATP, it is typical to see which systems increase their function?
Both the cardiovascular & respiratory systems increase in function to keep up with the amount of work being done by the cells
The more work by the cells, the faster and higher what?
The faster the blood flow, and the higher the activity of the respiratory system
One of the most obvious changes to cardiovascular function is ______ ______. The stronger the stimulus, the _______ _______ increases. Likewise, the ventilation rate increases.
A stronger stimulus in the body
Minor changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide will lead to?
Immediate responses by the cardiovascular & respiratory systems
Changes in partial pressure of oxygen have to be more _________ to put the systems into action
CO2 + H20 > H2CO3 > ?
H+ + HCO3
Carbon dioxide & water, in the presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, will be converted to?
Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
An acid is a?
Substance that gives off hydrogen ions in solution
The accumulation of hydrogen ions does what?
Lowers pH and the hydrogen ions protons interfere with protein functions. This is dangerous because the proteins are the workers of the body
The body's protection against changes in pH includes
The functions of the respiratory & urinary systems
Quick changes in pH can be achieved by altering?
Ventilation rate, but longer term adjustments are made through the urinary system where excess hydrogen ions are excreted in the urine
The tidal volume is?
The amount of air brought into the lungs during normal restful breathing