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Flashcards in Lab 11 Deck (100):
1

Why do the organ systems of the body have to work together?

In order to maintain homeostasis

2

How is coordination of organ systems achieved?

Through feedback loops that involve varies sensors in the body & specific control centers where information is integrated

3

Effectors are activated or inactivated as needed in order to?

Adjust the conditions in the body

4

The cardiovascular system serves as what?

As a major highway for transporting substances from one location to another in the body

5

Substances that the cardiovascular system transports.

1) Gases (i.e. oxygen, carbon dioxide)
2) Nutrients (i.e. glucose, fats, amino acids)
3) Wastes (i.e. urea, uric acid)
4) Signal molecules (i.e. hormones, neurohormones, cytokines)

6

The rate of cardiovascular system depends on the?

Demands

7

In the cardiovascular system, the higher the demand for oxygen in a certain area, the blood will move?

Faster to that area

8

The effectors for altering the flow of blood.

1) Sinoatrial node of the heart (to alter heart rate)
2) The LEFT ventricular contractile cells (to alter stroke volume)
3) The smooth muscle of the arterioles for adjusting the distribution of blood in the body

9

Vasoconstriction does what?

Restrict blood flow in some areas

10

Vasodilation does what?

Increases blood flow to some areas

11

When increased blood flow is required what branch of the CNS is active?

The sympathetic nervous system increases its activity & its neurons secrete norepinephrine to target cells

12

Increasing the rate of activation of the cells of the SA node will do what?

Increase heart rate

13

Increasing calcium levels in the left ventricle contractile cells will have what effect?

Increase myocardial contractility (force of contraction) & therefore stroke volume

14

The immediate & greatest effect on arterioles is?

Vasoconstriction

15

Local signals (i.e. increased CO2, decreased O2, increased temperature, decreased pH) lead to?

Vasodilation near the working tissues where greater blood flow is needed

16

The respiratory system plays a critical role in?

Maintaining carbon dioxide, oxygen, & pH levels in the body

17

Respiration involves 3 steps

1) Gas exchange at the cells
2) Gas exchange at the lungs
3) Ventilation

18

Gas exchange at the cells involves

Oxygen leaving & carbon dioxide entering the blood

19

Gas exchange at the lungs involves

Oxygen entering & carbon dioxide leaving the blood at the alveoli

20

Ventilation is?

The process of moving air into & out of the lungs

21

The movement of gases across membranes at the level of the body tissues & at the alveoli is predictable because of?

The Gas Laws

22

The term "pressure" is used instead of "___________" when referring to gases

Concentration

23

When referring to the amount of an individual gas, it is called the?

Partial pressure of that gas; i.e. partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2) partial pressure of oxygen (Po2)

24

Gases, whether a mixture or an individual gas, move where?

Down a pressure gradient (from higher pressure to lower pressure)

25

There is an inverse relationship between the pressure of a gas and the?

Volume of its container

26

If the volume of a container increased, what would happen to its pressure?

The pressure decreases, and vice versa (Boyle's law)

27

The total pressure of a mixed gas (i.e. air) is the sum of?

All of the partial pressures of the individual gases. (Daltons law)

28

Gas exchange at the body cells or alveoli can take place because?

Gases move from a place of higher to lower pressure

29

The blood returning to the lungs from the systemic circuit is what?

High in carbon dioxide & low in oxygen

30

When will oxygen move?

From where its higher (the alveolus) to where its lower (the blood)

31

When will carbon dioxide move?

From where its higher, the blood, to where its lower, the alveolus.

32

Ventilation provides a clear example of which law?

Boyle's law

33

The process of breathing

Ventilation

34

The process of breathing (ventilation) manipulates the volume of the?

Thoracic cavity, and therefore the lungs

35

By increasing the volume of the lungs, the pressure inside does what?

Drops

36

Where does air move? And what is its opposite?

From a place of higher pressure, atmospheric pressure, to a place of lower pressure, alveolar pressure.

37

As the metabolic rate changes, so too does the?

Oxygen requirement & carbon dioxide production by the working cells

38

What is the term that means "Oxygen required"

Aerobic

39

Where do the aerobic pathways take place in the cell?

Mitochondria

40

What are the names of the aerobic pathways?

Citric acid cycle & electron transport system

41

What are the names of the two anaerobic pathways?

ATP CP System
Glycolysis

42

Where do the anaerobic pathways take place in the cell?

Cytosol

43

1) What type of cells are the effectors for altering ventilation?
2) What is the efferent pathway to innervate these cells?
3) Which signal molecule will influence these cells?
4) Which specific receptor type is located on these effector cells?

1) Skeletal muscle
2) Somatic motor neuron
3) Acetylcholine
4) Nicotinic

44

Oxygen is used to form _____ at the end of the energy pathway.

Water

45

Oxygen is used at the very last step of this energy pathway

Electron transport system

46

Oxygen binds with ___ at the end of the pathway.

Hydrogen

47

Feedback loop for decrease in blood Partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Focus on the respiratory system and ventilation.

Stimulus: decrease partial pressure of carbon dioxide Sensor: Aortic or carotid chemoreceptors
Afferent pathway: Sensory neuron
Integrating center: Medulla oblongata
Efferent pathway: Parasympathetic neuron
Effector: Conducting cells of the sinoatrial node
Effectors action: Potassium channels open, cells hyper polarize, decrease rate of action potentials, decrease heart rate
Response: Increase in blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide

48

What type of signal molecule binds to receptors on cells that will lead to bronchodilation, and what is the source of this molecule?

Neurohormone from the adrenal medulla

49

What type of signal molecule binds to receptors on cells that will lead to bronchoconstriction, and what is the source of this molecule?

Neurotransmitter from a parasympathetic neuron

50

Which signal molecule would bind to receptors of the bronchiole smooth muscle to stimulate bronchodilation?

Epinephrine

51

Under what conditions will bronchoconstriction occur?

Rest-and-digest

52

What are the specific receptors to which a signal molecule will bind to cause bronchodilation?Which signal molecule would bind to receptors of the bronchiole smooth muscle to stimulate bronchodilation?

Beta-2 adrenergic. The signal molecule is epinephrine

53

Under what conditions would bronchodilation occur? And why?

Fight-or-flight. Because bronchodilation is under sympathetic control.

54

What are the specific receptors to which a signal molecule will bind to cause bronchoconstriction?

Muscarinic

55

Which signal molecule will bind to target cells to cause bronchoconstriction? What is the specific receptor for this?

Acetylcholine. The specific receptor is muscarinic

56

What are the effectors of the cardiovascular system?

Conducting cells of the sinoatrial node, Contractile cells of the left ventricle, Smooth muscle cells of the arterioles

57

The amount an individual gas is called its ___.

Partial pressure

58

The effector for stroke volume is?

Left ventricular contractile cells

59

The effector for total peripheral resistance is?

Arteriole smooth muscle

60

As the volume of the lungs increases the pressure decreases. This is an example of __ law.

Boyle's

61

The force of the contraction of the heart is called?

Myocardial contractility

62

The effector for heart rate is?

Sinoatrial node (conducting cells)

63

The process of breathing is called?

Ventilation

64

Gases move when there is a pressure ___.

Gradient

65

The amount of air left in the lungs after a maximum expiration.

Residual volume

66

The amount of air breathed in during normal resting inspiration or expiration.

Tidal volume

67

Feedback loop resulting from an increase in blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Focus on the respiratory system & ventilation.

Stimulus: Increase in blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide
Sensor: Aortic or carotid chemoreceptors
Afferent pathway:
Integrating center: Medulla oblongata
Efferent pathway: Somatic motor neuron
Effector: Diaphragm skeletal muscle cells
Effectors action: Increased contraction/relaxation cycle rate, increased rate and depth of ventilation
Response: Decrease in blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide

68

What are the effectors of the respiratory system?

Skeletal muscle cells of the diaphragm, Smooth muscle cells of the bronchioles

69

The respiratory has to provide the oxygen that's used at the end of?

The electron transport system in working cells, and has to get rid of the carbon dioxide formed in the citric acid (Krebs) cycle

70

The effector organs of the respiratory system are within and around the?

Thoracic cavity

71

The primary structures of regulation within the lungs are the?

Bronchioles, which have a layer of smooth muscle to control the diameter of the airway.

72

Smooth muscle contraction leads to?

Bronchoconstriction, decreasing the size of the airway & reducing the amount of air that can flow into and out of the lungs

73

Smooth muscle relaxation leads to? This allows?

Bronchodilation, this opening of the airway would increase the ability of air to flow into and out of the lungs

74

Major muscle of ventilation

Diaphragm

75

Gases move by diffusion because?

Gases are non polar so they can slip through lipid bilayer

76

Source of epinephrine

Adrenal medulla

77

What controls ventilation?

Skeletal muscles control ventilation (breathing) by contracting & relaxing rhythmically

78

When this bell-shaped muscle contracts, it flattens, thereby increasing volume of the thoracic cavity & decreasing the pressure inside. This creates a vacuum & causes air to be drawn into the lungs (inspiration)

Diaphragm

79

Relaxation of the diaphragm decreases what?

The volume of the thoracic cavity, increasing the pressure inside forcing air out (expiration)

80

The decrease in volume of the lungs, increases the? Because atmospheric pressure is now less than alveolar pressure, air will move?

Pressure inside.

81

There are certain characteristics of the lung tissue that is essential for proper function. The first is the?

Ability to stretch, which is called compliance

82

During inspiration, the lungs are passively _________-________ as the thoracic cavity expands. During

expanded-pulled

83

During expiration, the lung tissue ______, returning to its resting position. The ______ or return from a stretch is due to tissue __________.

recoils
Elasticity

84

As the requirement for oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal increases, what else increases?

The rates of ventilation and blood flow also increase

85

What is the full name of the integrating center that serves both the cardiovascular & respiratory systems?

Medulla oblongata

86

The more work performed by the cells, the more _____ is required. The more _____ required, the more oxygen must be delivered to and the more carbon dioxide must be removed from those cells

ATP

87

Under more work by the cells that require ATP, it is typical to see which systems increase their function?

Both the cardiovascular & respiratory systems increase in function to keep up with the amount of work being done by the cells

88

The more work by the cells, the faster and higher what?

The faster the blood flow, and the higher the activity of the respiratory system

89

One of the most obvious changes to cardiovascular function is ______ ______. The stronger the stimulus, the _______ _______ increases. Likewise, the ventilation rate increases.

Heart rate

90

A stronger stimulus in the body

Carbon dioxide

91

Minor changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide will lead to?

Immediate responses by the cardiovascular & respiratory systems

92

Changes in partial pressure of oxygen have to be more _________ to put the systems into action

Substantial

93

CO2 + H20 > H2CO3 > ?

H+ + HCO3

94

Carbon dioxide & water, in the presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, will be converted to?

Carbonic acid (H2CO3)

95

An acid is a?

Substance that gives off hydrogen ions in solution

96

The accumulation of hydrogen ions does what?

Lowers pH and the hydrogen ions protons interfere with protein functions. This is dangerous because the proteins are the workers of the body

97

The body's protection against changes in pH includes

The functions of the respiratory & urinary systems

98

Quick changes in pH can be achieved by altering?

Ventilation rate, but longer term adjustments are made through the urinary system where excess hydrogen ions are excreted in the urine

99

The tidal volume is?

The amount of air brought into the lungs during normal restful breathing

100

Lung capacities are?

Made up of one or more lung volumes