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Flashcards in Lab 13 Deck (151):
1

Hypoglycemia is?

A condition in which blood glucose levels are below normal

2

The metabolic processes involved in the building of larger biomolecules from smaller ones is?

Anabolism

3

What is diabetes mellitus?

A disease marked by chronic elevated blood glucose levels

4

This type of diabetes mellitus is a "lifestyle disease"

Type 2

5

Chemical reactions in which larger biomolecules are broken down into smaller ones is

Catabolism

6

The movement of substances from the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the body's extracellular fluid is?

Absorption

7

This term, often applied to diseases, means the rate of occurrence.

Incidence

8

Metabolism is?

The sum of all of the chemical reactions in the body

9

This type of diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease.

Type 1

10

What is hyperglycemia

A condition in which blood glucose levels are above normal

11

The monomer for lipids is?

Fatty acid

12

The monomer for protein is?

Amino acid

13

The process of breaking down stored fat into its monomer is called?

Lipolysis

14

The monomer for carbohydrates is?

Monosaccharide

15

The monomer for nucleic acids is?

Nucleotide

16

The storage form of carbohydrate is?

Glycogen

17

What is glycogenolysis?

The process of breaking down stored carbohydrates

18

The storage form of fat is?

Triglyceride

19

When fatty acids are broken down into fatty acids, the product enters this energy pathway.

Citric acid cycle

20

The energy pathway in which the carbohydrate monomer is broken down is?

Glycolysis

21

Epinephrine is this type of hormone.

Amine

22

Insulin and glucagon are produced in this gland.

Pancreas

23

Hormones produced in the adrenal cortex are this type

Steroid

24

Oxytocin and vasopressin are secreted from this gland.

Posterior pituitary

25

This type of hormone can enter the cell and act as a transcription factor.

Steroid

26

Glucagon is secreted by these cells.

Alpha cells

27

Hormones produced in the pancreas are this type.

Peptide

28

Insulin is secreted by these cells.

Beta cells

29

This hormone is produced in the skin.

Vitamin D3

30

In this test, the patient refrains from eating, drinking anything other than water, and exercise for 8 to 12 hours before the test.

Fasting blood glucose test

31

In this clinical test, a patient is fed a given amount of glucose and is then monitored to see how the body handles the glucose.

Glucose tolerance test

32

A fasting blood glucose test result of 117 mg/dL, would be classified as?

Pre-diabetes

33

A major consequence of living with chronic hyperglycemia is?

The glucose molecules form bonds with proteins- where they normally do not belong

34

What is glycation?

Adding glucose to other molecules

35

There are some studies that suggest that someone with diabetes mellitus has a normal number of insulin receptors, but they do not respond correctly. This reduced functionality of the receptors is called?

Desensitization

36

Hemoglobin A1C test is?

This clinical test is used to evaluate long-term exposure to high blood glucose levels

37

A glucose tolerance test result that remains below 150 mg/dL and is 110 mg/dL after 2 hours would be classified as?

Normal

38

One possible cause of diabetes mellitus is a decreased number of receptors or glucose transporters. A decrease in the production of such proteins is called?

Down-regulation

39

Physical activity leads to an increase in the number of glucose transporters in the trained skeletal muscle cells. Increase production of proteins like these transporters is called?

Up-regulation

40

Feedback loop for increase in blood glucose

Stimulus: increase in blood glucose
Sensor: Alpha & beta cells of pancreas
Afferent pathway: none
Integrating center: Alpha and beta cells of pancreas
Efferent pathway: Insulin
Effector: Hepatocytes, skeletal muscle cells, adipocytes
Effectors action: Increase in GLUT 2 & GLUT 4 activity; glycogenesis and lipogenesis
Response: decrease in blood glucose

41

Feedback loop for decrease in blood glucose

Stimulus: Decrease in blood glucose
Sensor: Alpha and beta cells of the pancreas
Afferent pathway: None
Integrating center: Alpha and beta cells of the pancreas
Efferent pathway: Glucagon
Effector: Hepatocytes only
Effectors action: Increased GLUT-2 activity, Glycogenolysis
Response: Increase in blood glucose

42

As the cells work, the demand for ______ increases

ATP adenosine triphosphate

43

All the chemical reactions in the body

Metabolism

44

Reactions that release energy and result in the breakdown of large biomolecules

Catabolism

45

Metabolic pathways that require a net input of energy & that synthesize small molecules into larger ones

Anabolism

46

What is digestion?

Chemical & mechanical breakdown of foods into smaller units that can be absorbed

47

What is absorption?

Transfer of substances from the lumen of the kidney of gastrointestinal tract to the extracellular space

48

What is incidence?

Rate, range or amount of occurrence or influence

49

An excess of glucose in the bloodstream, often associated with diabetes mellitus

Hyperglycemia

50

Disease characterized by lack of or abnormal action of insulin

Diabetes mellitus

51

Fuels enter the body as food molecules, and the digestive system is responsible for?

Breaking them down (digesting) into smaller molecules that can be absorbed int he intestine. Some of the absorbed molecules will be used as building blocks for cellular structures, & others will be used as fuels for making ATP

52

The process of breaking down stored carbohydrate into its monomer is called?

Glycogenolysis

53

Final product of glycolysis pathway?

Pyruvate

54

In order to enter an energy pathway, fatty acids must be converted to?

Acetyl CoA

55

Which pathway does Acetyl CoA enter?

Krebs cycle

56

What is the process of breaking down the fatty acid into acetyl CoA called?

Beta oxidation

57

What are the primary fuels for making ATP? What about protein?

Glucose and fatty acids. Protein can be catabolized to amino acids, which in turn can be converted to glucose in the liver (gluconeogenesis). But this will only happen to a significant degree if the body is running low in carbohydrate stores

58

Most important fuel for the cells.

Glucose. This carbohydrate is preferred fuel in the CNS. It is the primary fuel for high intensity, short duration physical exertions that last 20 seconds or more

59

The initial steps in the breakdown of glucose is?

An anaerobic process, but under aerobic conditions, the byproduct of glycolysis can be further broken down in the aerobic pathways

60

Fuel with the largest potential energy stores in the body

Fat

61

Fat can only be broken down by?

Aerobic processes. Therefore, energy from fat is not as readily available as that from carbohydrate, particularly when demands for oxygen increase

62

Rather than requiring neurons to deliver messages, endocrine cells secrete signal molecules called?

Hormones, which are delivered to their target cells through the blood stream. Target cells are those with receptors for that hormone

63

There are 3 chemical categories for hormones

Amines, peptides, and steroids

64

An amine hormone is derived from?

A single amino acid

65

Epinephrine is derived from?

The amino acid tyrosine

66

Peptide hormones are produced through?

Protein synthesis, and are chains of amino acids

67

Because amines and peptides are polar molecules, they bind to?

Membrane receptors to communicate with their target cells

68

Steroid hormones fall into what category?

The lipid or fat biomolecule category

69

Because steroids are non polar and lipophilic, they can?

Either bind to membrane receptors or pass through cell membranes and bind to receptors in the cytoplasm or cell nucleus

70

The non polar steroid hormones are?

Hydrophobic, and as a result they need to be attached to a protein carrier while they are in the blood

71

Because steroids can enter the cell, they often act as?

Transcription factors-turning genes on or off to stimulate or reduce protein synthesis by the cell

72

Cells of the adrenal cortex produce?

Only one class or hormones. For example, the cells of the adrenal medulla only produces amines, whereas the cells of the adrenal cortex produces steroid hormones

73

What are the names of the hormones produced there?

Peptides

74

In which chemical class do these hormones belong?

Oxytocin & vasopressin (ADH).

75

Into which chemical class does this hormone fall?

Adrenal cortex.

76

Which type of hormone is it?

Vitamin D3.

77

Those hormones most directly involved in glucose metabolism are?

Insulin and glucagon

78

These pancreatic peptide hormones are antagonistic to each other

Insulin and glucagon

79

When is insulin released

When blood glucose levels are high, and glucagon when glucose levels are low

80

During and immediately following the ingestion of food, insulin levels typically?

Increase to stimulate cells to put fuels into storage

81

Glucagon communicates with cells when blood glucose is?

Low and needs to be taken out of storage and made available for the cells

82

The academy of nutrition and dietetics, formerly the American dietetic association, has been promoting the concept of a?

Balanced diet

83

The recommendations by the organization the academy of nutrition and dietetics, are based on current understanding of?

Nutritional demands on the body

84

The concept of nutrition or macromolecule balance should match the needs of the body in terms of?

Providing building blocks and fuel for optimum function

85

Dietary proteins are required for what?

Providing building blocks for the cells proteins

86

Fats are required for?

Production of cell membranes, steroid hormones, and stored fuel

87

Carbohydrates are essential as a fuel, but also for?

Production of hybrid molecules (e.g. glycoproteins)

88

Having too much or too little of any one of these biomolecule groups (fat, carbohydrates, proteins), may leave the systems of the body in a?

Compromised state

89

When eating food that is high in simple sugars (monosaccharides) and little else, blood glucose levels can?

Dramatically increase in a short period of time. This spike in blood glucose can be followed by a rapid drop, leaving the person feeling fatigued. If the high-monosaccharide intake was accompanied by other macronutrients (fat,protein), on the other hand, carbohydrate absorption from the gut would be slowed, reducing the probability of blood glucose spike

90

Blood glucose homeostasis involves?

Constantly functioning feedback loops

91

During and following a meal, blood glucose levels rise. What detects glucose levels?

The alpha and beta cells of the pancreas detect glucose levels and release hormones as needed to signal target cells to remove glucose from the blood when its high, or to release glucose into the blood when its low

92

The body cells responsible for taking up glucose and putting into storage are the?

Hepatocytes (liver) and skeletal muscles

93

What do hepatocytes (liver) and skeletal muscle cells do?

Responsible for taking up glucose and putting into storage. They will convert the glucose to glycogen, the storage form of carbohydrate in the body

94

Storage form of carbohydrates

Glycogen

95

Can adipocytes also remove glucose from the blood?

Yes but it is converted to and stored as fat called triglyceride

96

Storage form of fat

Triglyceride

97

What happens when insulin binds to hepatocytes, skeletal muscle cells, and adipocytes?

They increase the activity of glucose transporters

98

What reduces blood glucose levels?

Glucose transporters

99

Once insulin is released and blood glucose returns to normal what happens?

The amount of insulin secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas is reduced

100

Between meals, glucose levels will fall. To maintain blood glucose levels, the liver will?

Transport glucose back into the blood

101

Acts as a warehouse and processing center for nutrients

The liver

102

The availability of glucose for transport into the blood is increased when?

The hormone glucagon binds to the hepatocytes

103

Glucagon is secreted from the?

Pancreatic alpha cells when blood glucose is low

104

Skeletal muscle cells do not release their glucose. What do they do?

They keep it in storage as glycogen until the cells need it to make ATP. Because adipocytes converted the glucose to fat, it is no longer available to return to the blood

105

What happens when liver glycogen is depleted?

Blood glucose levels are maintained by the breakdown of protein (primarily from skeletal muscle)

106

Proteolysis (the breakdown of proteins or peptides into amino acids by the action of enzymes) is followed by?

Deamination (the removal of an amino group from an amino acid or other compound) of the amino acids and the products are converted to glucose

107

Where does gluconeogenesis take place?

Primarily in the liver, can also take place in the kidney, but it only contributes significantly during starvation or when there is liver failure

108

Clinical measures of blood glucose are used to identify?

Individuals with or at risk for developing metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Also used in research settings to examine how the body handles the glucose in different foods or under different conditions (e.g. exercise, rest, stress, etc.)

109

What is the fasting blood glucose test?

Blood glucose is measured following an 8-12 hour fast. The individual will refrain from eating or drinking (except water), or of anything that might alter metabolism

110

What is the glucose tolerance test?

Requires the individual to fast for 8 to 12 hours. It begins with a fasting measure, then the person consumes a specific amount of glucose (75 grams). The blood glucose levels are monitored over a 2 hour period to see how levels change over that time

111

Diabetes mellitus:

Normal: (Less than) <100-110 mg/dL

112

Normal:

Normal: Remains less than 200 mg/dL over 2 hours and less than or equal to 140 mg/dL by 2 hours post ingestion

113

What is the hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) test?

Reflects glucose exposure over the previous 3 months. Use to be used to monitor long-term glucose exposure in diabetes, but now it is also being used to diagnose diabetes mellitus.

114

Diabetes mellitus is?

Normal: ~5%

115

The hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) is often the preferred test because?

It does not require the individual to fast. However this test is not valid for all patients. There are certain racial/ethnic groups for whom the test lacks accuracy. Also does not reflect how the body handles glucose in the short-term, as a glucose tolerance test will

116

Tests conducted during annual physical exams may include?

The fasting blood glucose or the HbA1C test. These tests can alert clinicians to the development of diabetes mellitus

117

The main sign of diabetes mellitus is?

Increased blood glucose hyperglycemia

118

There are different causes of hyperglycemia, and these differences are distinguished by the?

Type of diabetes mellitus

119

There are two main types of diabetes mellitus

Type 1 and type 2

120

Ten percent of diabetes mellitus cases are?

Type 1 which is an autoimmune disease. The immune system targets and destroys the beta cells of the pancreas, which are responsible for producing insulin

121

What is insulin? What does lack of insulin result in?

The signal molecule responsible for communicating with cells that are responsible for removing glucose from the blood. Lack of insulin results in a reduction in glucose uptake by the cells, and more remaining in the blood

122

What is type 2 diabetes

Considered a lifestyle disease, meaning there are ways of avoiding or reducing the probability of developing that disease. One of the fastest growing diseases in developed or developing nations

123

Between _____ and ______, the incidence of diabetes in the United States has increased over ____%

1980 and 2011
30%

124

Understanding this disease is very important for students pursuing careers in the allied health professions

Diabetes mellitus

125

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), risk factors for type 2 diabetes include

Older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, prior history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity

126

Who is at a high risk for type 2 diabetes

African Americans, hispanic/latino americans, american indians, and some asian americans and pacific islanders

127

Some risk factors can be altered to reduce the risk or even reverse the disease state of diabetes type 2

Dietary and physical activity changes have been shown to reverse the signs of type 2 within weeks

128

Although obesity is often referred to as a "cause" of diabetes mellitus, changes in lifestyle do not reverse the amount of fat in 6 weeks. In many studies on the effects of lifestyle changes, the sign of type 2 diabetes have been completely reversed while?

The person remains obese.

129

One method of controlling obesity is bariatric surgery. Studies have reported that bariatric surgery in severely obese individuals with type 2 diabetes can?

Reverse or eliminate the disease in some individuals. However it is unclear whether the reversal was due to the surgery or the reduction in caloric intake following the procedure

130

The cause of type 1 diabetes is clearly identified.

When the cells that produce insulin are destroyed, effector cells do not receive messages because the efferent pathway, insulin, is not present

131

In pre-diabetes, insulin is?

Insulin levels are higher than normal, yet blood glucose levels remain above normal. What this suggests is that there is a breakdown in communication between the signal molecule insulin and its target cells

132

Diseases are often a result of the?

Breakdown of the cellular workers

133

In the case of type 2 diabetes mellitus, there may be a problem with the?

Receptors for insulin, glucose transporters, or any of the intermediates in the communication pathways inside the target cells

134

What is insulin resistance?

Decreased responsiveness of the cells to insulin

135

One proposed mechanism for the decreased responsiveness of the cells to insulin (insulin resistance), is a?

Decreased number of receptors or transporters. This would result from down-regulation of these proteins. Alternatively, there may be enough receptors, but they are failing to respond to the signal molecule that bind to them. This decreased responsiveness is known as desensitization

136

What is desensitization?

A decreased responsiveness of receptors. There may be enough receptors, but they are failing to respond to the signal molecule that bind to them

137

As the condition progresses from pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes and becomes more severe, the response of the beta cells to increases in blood glucose begins to? Repeated exposure to high levels of glucose, glucose spikes, may be related to?

Fail
The development of the disease

138

What is glucose spike

Repeated exposure to high levels of glucose

139

The treatment for early stages of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes include

Dietary changes and increases in physical activity

140

Exercise increases the number of?

Glucose transporters (GLUT-4) in skeletal muscle, decreases insulin resistance

141

The increase in glucose transporters is due to?

Up-regulation of the protein synthesis for these transporters

142

Lifestyle changes have been shown to reverse the symptoms of?

Type 2 diabetes within 6 weeks of regular exercise and dietary adjustments

143

Obesity, particularly abdominal fat, is related to?

Increased insulin resistance or glucose intolerance (inability to handle the glucose correctly)

144

Abdominal obesity has been associated with?

Diets in high fructose. This is due to the fact that the typical american diet contains a great deal of more fructose than the body is able to handle. As a result, the excess fructose is converted to fat, and much of it remains in the visceral region of the body and even within the liver

145

Protein should make up how much percent?

45-65% carbohydrate (including complex, simple and fiber) with only 5-15% of total calories coming from added sugar (sucrose, and table sugar)

146

Any calories in excess will be?

Converted to body fat

147

Failure to control or reverse diabetes mellitus can result in various debilitating conditions including

Retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular disease, hypertension and heart disease

148

Most diabetics die from?

Heart attack or strokes

149

An important mechanism of the physical complications associated with diabetes mellitus is?

Glycation of proteins around the body. The high concentration of glucose in the body increases the probability of glucose forming hybrid molecules where it shouldn't

150

Knowing that the structure of a protein determines its function, imagine what happens to proteins that have glucose residues added to them. Destroying the workers of the cells will lead to?

Cell, organ and system failure

151

Difference between glycogen and glucagon

Glycogen: Store of carbohydrates. It is a polysaccharide that forms glucose on hydrolysis
Glucagon: Hormone formed in the pancreas that promotes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver