Chapter 26, Phylogeny Flashcards Preview

BioSci 1223 (S&T) > Chapter 26, Phylogeny > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 26, Phylogeny Deck (22):
1

Define phylogeny

The (current hypothesis of the) evolutionary history of a species or group of related species

2

Define systematics

The classification of organisms and their evolutionary relationships

3

Define taxonomy

The scientific discipline concerned with classifying and naming organisms

4

Describe the two-part naming system for species

The name is called the binomial, the first part is the genus and the second part, the epithet is unique for each species

The first letter of the genus is capitalized and the entire species name is italicized

5

Name the eight taxonomic groups from broad to narrow

Domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

6

What is a taxon?

A taxonomic unit at any level of hierarachy

7

What are the three domains?

Bacteria, Archean, Eukaryota

8

Define phylogenetic tree

The evolutionary history of a group of organisms

9

What do branch points on a phylogenetic tree represent?

The divergence of two species

10

Define sister taxa

Groups that share an immediate common ancestor

11

Define a polytomy

An unresolved pattern of divergence in a phylogenetic tree

12

Define homology and give an example

Similarity due to shared ancestry- bones in whale flippers, bat wings, and human hands

13

Define analogy and give an example

Similarity due to convergent evolution, the Australian marsupial mole and the North American eutherian mole

14

Define cladistics

The grouping of organisms by common ancestry

15

Define clade

A group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants

16

Define a monophyletic clade

Consisting of the ancestor species and all its descendants

17

Define a paraphyletic clade

Consisting of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of the descendants

18

Define a polyphyletic clade

Includes distantly related species but does not include their most recent common ancestor

19

Define shared ancestral character and give some examples

A character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon (distinguishes that clade from sisters)
Ex: milk and hair in mammals, four limbs in birds and mammals

Shared with the species ancestral to more than one group

20

Define shared derived character

A character that is an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade

Shared by the ancestral species and a single group
(unique to a clade), mutation in ancestor

21

Define ingroup and outgroup

An outgroup is a species or group of species that is closely related to the ingroup, the various species being studied

The outgroup diverged before the ingroup

22

What is another name for a Basal taxa?

Outgroup