Chapter 27 Flashcards Preview

AP World History > Chapter 27 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 27 Deck (60):
1

Shah Jahan

The emperor of Mughal India (another Islamic empire of early modern times)

2

Peacock Throne

Shah Jahan's ornate throne, made with ten million rupees' worth of jewels

3

Taj Mahal

Built over the course of 18 years as a tomb for Shah Jahan's wife, Mumtaz Mahal, who died in childbirth. Is a monument to the departed empress and to Shah Jahan's islamic faith. (Built to symbolize the day when Allah would cause the dead to rise/undergo judgement before his heavenly throne)

4

Ottoman Empire

A dynastic Muslim state centered in modern-day Turkey. It was the longest lived of the Muslim empires, not disbanding until the early 20th century.

5

Safavid dynasty

Ruled a Muslim empire in early 16th century in Persia that never expanded its heartland in present-day Iran, but whose Shiite rulers challenged the Sunni Ottomans for dominance in SW Asia. prospered from trade because it connected trade routes to China, India, Russia, and Mediterranean.

6

Osman Gazi

Founded the Ottoman empire in 1289. Osman and his followers wanted to become Ghazi: Muslim religious warriors

7

bey

chief

8

Bursa

Anatolian city captured by the Ottomans who made it the capital of their principality. Developed into a commercial and intellectual center

9

Edirne (Adrianople)

Became a 2nd Ottoman capital and served as a base for expansion into the Balkans

10

Devshirme

An institution that required the Christian population in the Balkans to contribute young boys to become slaves for the Sultan of the Ottoman empire.

11

Janissaries

Slave boys from the Balkans who became Ottoman soldiers. Gained a reputation of loyalty to the Sultan.

12

Mehmed the Conqueror

Ottoman Sultan who captured Constantinople in 1453 and expanded the empire
Ruler of 2 lands (Asia and Europe) and 2 seas (Mediterranean and Black Seas)

13

Constantinople

Became new Ottoman capital. Allowed for further expansion (later Istanbul)

14

Selim the Grim

Ottoman Sultan that expanded empire into Syria and Egypt

15

Suleyman the Magnificent

Sultan that promoted Ottoman expansion and made them a major naval power

16

Khayr al-Din Barbarossa Pasha

A Turkish corsair that placed his pirate fleet under the Ottoman's flag and became Suleyman's leading admiral.

17

Ismail

A 14-year old boy who left Gilan, entered Tabriz at the head of an army, and claimed the Persian Imperial Title of Shah. Made religion of his realm Twelver Shiism.

18

Safi al-Din

Leader of a Sufi religious order in NW Persia.

19

Safavids

The family of Shah Ismail who claimed to be descendants of Safi al-Din.

20

Twelver Shiism

The religious belief that there were 12 infallible imams (religious leaders) after Muhammad.

21

Qizilbash

"Red heads" refers to the Turkish followers of Ismail's father who wore a red hat with 12 pleats in memory of the 12 Shiite imams.

22

Battle of Chaldiran

Selm the Grimm's Janissaries invaded the Shiite Safavid's territory and waged a critical battle that was disastrous for Safavids. The Ottomans had the upper hand because they were armed whereas the Safavids were not.

23

Tabriz

Safavid capital that was temporarily occupied by the Ottomans after the Battle of Chaldiran.

24

Shah Abbas the Great

Safavid ruler who moved the capital to Isfahan and encouraged foreign trade.

25

Zahir al-Din Muhammad

aka Babur "the tiger". He founded the Mughal dynasty in India.

26

Akbar

Babur's grandson who ruled Mughal empire and laid the foundations for future Mughal expansion in southern India.

27

Adham Khan

A powerful figure/commander of Mughal army who Akbar threw out a window after an argument.

28

Divine Faith

Syncretic religion supported by Akbar that saw the emperor is the ruler of all.

29

Avrangzeb

Mughal emperor who waged a relentless campaign to expand Mughal territory into S. India

30

Kanun

"Laws" issued by Suleyman.

31

Steppe Traditions

Laws created by Islamic emperors like Mehmed's law that a ruler could legally kill off all his brothers.

32

Chinggis Khan

Ruler who revered his mother and first wife.

33

Hurrem Sultana

A Ukranian concubine (aka Roxelana) who Suleyman elevated to status of legal wife.

34

Mahd-e Olya

The wife of a Shah in Safavid Persia who was the de facto ruler.

35

Emperor Jahangir

Let his wife, Nur Janan rule Mughal empire.

36

Tobacco

English merchants introduced tobacco and it spread throughout Ottoman empire along with coffee.

37

Sultan Murad IV

Tried to outlaw coffee and tobacco in the Ottoman empire but failed.

38

Aleppo

City in Syria that became an emporium for foreign merchants and spice trade. Served as the headquarters for the English Levant Company.

39

Portuguese Goa

Center of a Christian mission in India

40

Sikhs

Combined elements of Hinduism and Islam to make a syncretic religion.

41

Dhimmi

"protect people" A policy extended to people conquered by Islamic empires who paid a special tax called "Jizya"

42

Millet

autonomous religious communities in Ottoman empire

43

Sinan Pasha

Genius architect who built for Suleyman in Istanbul. Built Suleymaniye by blending Byzantine and Islamic architectural monuments

44

Ali Qapu

The palace on the square in Isfahan with large balcony

45

Fatehpur Sikri

city planned and build by Akbar, served as his capital

46

Shaykh Salim Chishti

Akbar's Sufi guru

47

Selim the Sot and Ibrahim the Crazy

Suleyman's successors who taxed and spent in such excess that government officials murdered him (Ibrahim)

48

Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi

A Muslim Conservative Cleric who rebuked Akbar for his policy of religious tolerance

49

William Bedwell

English scholar who described Arabic as the only important language from Morocco to China

50

Piri Reis

Ottoman admiral and cartographer who produced large scale maps and wrote the Book of Seafaring

51

Printing Press

Jewish refugees from Spain introduced the printing press to Anatolia in the 15th century, and it allowed for people to cheaply produce books

52

Ahmadi

Poet who said Ghazi were the swords of Allah

53

Ghazi

Muslim religious warriors

54

Habsburg Empire

Suleyman fought the Habsburg Empire in Europe and eventually won Vienna.

55

Battle of the Mohác

Suleyman killed the king of Hungary in the Battle of the Mohác

56

Sufism

A mystical belief/practice to recover the intimacy of God and human souls.

57

Ibrahim Pechevi

An Ottoman historian who said that tobacco was used as medicine.

58

Isfahan

A commercial center and capital for the Safavids.

59

Gujarat

A province that Akbar took over in a campaign that enabled him to head off both Portuguese attacks and Ottoman intervention there.

60

Muslim Conservative Clerics

Objected any policies against Islam (ie. forced observatory destruction and closed the printing press company)