Period 4: Africa Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Period 4: Africa Deck (8):

How was the Songhay empire economically tied to the broader Muslim world?

The sub-Saharan empire of Songhay was an Islamic state with economic ties to the broader Muslim world through the trans-Saharan trade of salt and gold, like its predecessors Ghana and Mali.


Who was Sunni Ali?

- ruled 1464 to 1493
- consolidated the Songhay empire in the Niger River Valley
- used an imperial navy, established a central administration, and financed the city of Timbuktu as a major Islamic center


How did the Songhay empire decline?

The Songhay empire fell to a superior military force: Moroccans with muskets.


What were characteristics of the kingdom of Kongo?

- west coast of Africa
- supported by its trade with Portuguese merchants as early as the 1480s
- kings converted to Catholicism


Who was King Alfonso I?

King Alfonso I ruled the kingdom of Kongo and was particularly successful at converting his people to Catholicism.


How did the Portuguese impact the kingdom of Kongo over time?

- Portuguese tactics and the desire for slaves from the interior undermined the authority of the kings of Kongo
- the Kongo state gradually declined
- outright hostilities and war between the Portuguese and the kings of Kongo led to the kingdom mostly being destroyed


What was the kingdom of Ndongo or Angola?

- the Portuguese established a small trading post in Ndongo, or Angola, south of Kongo as early as 1575
- the Portuguese did this to expand their trade in slaves from the interior
- Angola grew into a powerful state


Who was Queen Nzinga?

- warrior queen of the Ndongo kingdom
- fiercely resisted the Portuguese when they attempted to further exert their authority and control
- led her troops in battle, studied European military tactics, and made alliances with Portugal's Dutch rivals for 40 years
- could not overcome the superior weaponry of the Portuguese in the end