Flashcards in Chapter 27 Pedi Kidneys Deck (48):
Occurs when the fetus is stressed during a difficult delivery or a hypoxic insult.
Lie at the base of the medullary pyramids and appear as echogenic structures.
Congenital polycystic kidney disease that usually presents during middle age; the severity of the disease varies widelyautosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)
autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)
Rare, conginital polycystic renal disease; typically occurs with diffuse enlargement, sacculations and cystic diverticula of the medullary portions of the kidneys.
autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD)
Most common benign renal tumor of the neonate and infant
congenital mesoblastic nephroma
Outer rim of the kdiney; in the neionate it has an echogenicity similar to that of the normal liver parenchyma
Dilation of any tubular vessel
Ectopic insertion and cystic dilation of distal ureter of duplicated renal collecting system
dilation of the renal collecting system
large and hypoechoic in the neonate
Most common cause of renal cystic disease in the neonate; multiple cystic masses within the kidney; may have contralateral ureteral pelvic junction obstruction
multicystic dysplasit kidney (MCDK)
Abnormal persistence of fetal renal blastoma
Malignant adrenal mass seen in pediatric patients; hemorrhaging tumor consisting promarily of cells resembling neuroblasts
Poorly function ing enlarged kidneys
polycystic renal disease
Most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in the male neonate
posterior urethral valves
classification of cystic renal disease
Dilation of the fetal abdomen to severe bilateral hydronephrosis and fetal ascites; fetus also has oligohydramnios and pulmonary hypoplasia
underdevelopment of the lung tissue that occurs in utero secondary to oligohydramnios
Kidny becomes enlarged and edematous as a result of obstruction of the renal vein
renal vein thrombosis
Most common neonatal obstruction of the urinary tract; results from intrinsic narrowing or extrinsic vasular compression
ureteropelvic junction obstruction
Adds cardiac and limb anomalies to the VATER syndrome
Vetebral, anal, tracheoesophageal fistula and renal anomalies
Most common malignant tumor in the neonate and infant
Wilms' tumor (nephroblastoma)
In the second trimester, the kidney develops from small _______ composed of a central large pyramid with a thin peripheral rim of cortex.
As the renunculi fuse progressively, their adjoining cortices form a(n) ___________.
column of Bertin
The former renunculi are at the point called ________.
The _________ continues to grow throughout childhood, whereas the ______ become smaller in size.
The larger amount of cortical ______ is not present in the neonate and pediatric patient, which allows clear distinction of the corticomedullary junction.
The _______ are large and hypoechoic and should not be mistaken for dilated calyces or cysts.
The surrounding cortex is quite thin, with echogenicity essentially similar to or slightly greater than that of normal _______ parenchyma.
The ______ vessels are seen as intense specular echoes at the corticomedullary junction.
At the siste of the fetal obulation, a parenchymal tringular defect may be identified in the anterosuperior or inferoposterior aspect of the kidney, known as a(n) _________ defect.
Each adrenal glad lies immediately ________ to the upper pole of the kidney.
The normal urinary bladder is thin-walled in the distended state and should measure less than ______ mm.
The dilatation of the urinary collecting system is known as _______.
The most common type of obstruction of the upper urinary tract is ______; it most often results from intrinsic narrowing or extrinsic vascular compression at the level of the ureteropelvic junction.
ureteropelvic junction obstruction
The obstruction produces _____(proximal or distal) dilatation of the collecting system; the ureter is normal in caliber.
The most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in the male neonate is ________ valves.
Urinary _______ or a perirenal ______ can result from high-pressure vesicoureteral reflux rupturing a calyceal fornix or tearing the renal parenchyma.
The ectopic _______ is seen as a fluid mass within the rinary bladder and is located inferomedially to the ureteral insertion of the lower pole ureter.
The triad of hypoplasia, or deficiency, of the abdominal musculature, cryptorchidism, and urinary tract anomalies is known as the ________ syndrome.
The most common cause of renal cystic disease presenting in the neonate is ______, and when hydronephrosis is excluded, it is the most comon cause of an abdominal mass in the newborn.
multicystic dysplastic kidney
Sonographically, the classic appearance of MCDK is of a unilateral mass resembling a bunch of grapes, which represents a cluster of discrete _____ cysts, the larges of which are peripheral.
The kidneys are hyperechoic and greatly enlarged with a hypoechogenic outer rim, which represents the cortex compressed by the expanded pyramids in __________.
autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease
The most common intra-abdominal malignant renal tumor is _________ in young children.
A (n) _________ is a malignant tumor that arises in sympathetic chain ganglia and adrenal medulla; it may be dectected on antenatal sonography or at birth.
About half of neuroblastoma tumors arise in the medulla of the ________, although tumors have also been found in the neck, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and pelvis.