Chapter 27 Pedi Kidneys Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 27 Pedi Kidneys Deck (48):
1

Occurs when the fetus is stressed during a difficult delivery or a hypoxic insult.

Adrenal hemorrhage

2

Lie at the base of the medullary pyramids and appear as echogenic structures.

Arcuate arteries

3

Congenital polycystic kidney disease that usually presents during middle age; the severity of the disease varies widelyautosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)

autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)

4

Rare, conginital polycystic renal disease; typically occurs with diffuse enlargement, sacculations and cystic diverticula of the medullary portions of the kidneys.

autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD)

5

Most common benign renal tumor of the neonate and infant

congenital mesoblastic nephroma

6

Outer rim of the kdiney; in the neionate it has an echogenicity similar to that of the normal liver parenchyma

cortex

7

Dilation of any tubular vessel

ectasia

8

Ectopic insertion and cystic dilation of distal ureter of duplicated renal collecting system

ectopic ureterocele

9

dilation of the renal collecting system

hydronephrosis

10

large and hypoechoic in the neonate

medullary pyramids

11

Most common cause of renal cystic disease in the neonate; multiple cystic masses within the kidney; may have contralateral ureteral pelvic junction obstruction

multicystic dysplasit kidney (MCDK)

12

Abnormal persistence of fetal renal blastoma

nephroblastomatosis

13

Malignant adrenal mass seen in pediatric patients; hemorrhaging tumor consisting promarily of cells resembling neuroblasts

neuroblastoma

14

Poorly function ing enlarged kidneys

polycystic renal disease

15

Most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in the male neonate

posterior urethral valves

16

classification of cystic renal disease

Potter facies

17

Dilation of the fetal abdomen to severe bilateral hydronephrosis and fetal ascites; fetus also has oligohydramnios and pulmonary hypoplasia

prune-belly syndrome

18

underdevelopment of the lung tissue that occurs in utero secondary to oligohydramnios

pulmonary hypoplasia

19

Kidny becomes enlarged and edematous as a result of obstruction of the renal vein

renal vein thrombosis

20

Most common neonatal obstruction of the urinary tract; results from intrinsic narrowing or extrinsic vasular compression

ureteropelvic junction obstruction

21

Adds cardiac and limb anomalies to the VATER syndrome

VACTERL

22

Vetebral, anal, tracheoesophageal fistula and renal anomalies

VATER

23

Most common malignant tumor in the neonate and infant

Wilms' tumor (nephroblastoma)

24

In the second trimester, the kidney develops from small _______ composed of a central large pyramid with a thin peripheral rim of cortex.

renunculi

25

As the renunculi fuse progressively, their adjoining cortices form a(n) ___________.

column of Bertin

26

The former renunculi are at the point called ________.

lobes

27

The _________ continues to grow throughout childhood, whereas the ______ become smaller in size.

cortex, pyramids

28

The larger amount of cortical ______ is not present in the neonate and pediatric patient, which allows clear distinction of the corticomedullary junction.

fat

29

The _______ are large and hypoechoic and should not be mistaken for dilated calyces or cysts.

medullary pyramids

30

The surrounding cortex is quite thin, with echogenicity essentially similar to or slightly greater than that of normal _______ parenchyma.

liver

31

The ______ vessels are seen as intense specular echoes at the corticomedullary junction.

arcurate

32

At the siste of the fetal obulation, a parenchymal tringular defect may be identified in the anterosuperior or inferoposterior aspect of the kidney, known as a(n) _________ defect.

junctional parenchymal

33

Each adrenal glad lies immediately ________ to the upper pole of the kidney.

superior

34

The normal urinary bladder is thin-walled in the distended state and should measure less than ______ mm.

3

35

The dilatation of the urinary collecting system is known as _______.

hydronephrosis

36

The most common type of obstruction of the upper urinary tract is ______; it most often results from intrinsic narrowing or extrinsic vascular compression at the level of the ureteropelvic junction.

ureteropelvic junction obstruction

37

The obstruction produces _____(proximal or distal) dilatation of the collecting system; the ureter is normal in caliber.

proximal

38

The most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in the male neonate is ________ valves.

posterior urethral

39

Urinary _______ or a perirenal ______ can result from high-pressure vesicoureteral reflux rupturing a calyceal fornix or tearing the renal parenchyma.

ascites, urinoma

40

The ectopic _______ is seen as a fluid mass within the rinary bladder and is located inferomedially to the ureteral insertion of the lower pole ureter.

ureterocele

41

The triad of hypoplasia, or deficiency, of the abdominal musculature, cryptorchidism, and urinary tract anomalies is known as the ________ syndrome.

prune belly

42

The most common cause of renal cystic disease presenting in the neonate is ______, and when hydronephrosis is excluded, it is the most comon cause of an abdominal mass in the newborn.

multicystic dysplastic kidney

43

Sonographically, the classic appearance of MCDK is of a unilateral mass resembling a bunch of grapes, which represents a cluster of discrete _____ cysts, the larges of which are peripheral.

noncommunicating

44

The kidneys are hyperechoic and greatly enlarged with a hypoechogenic outer rim, which represents the cortex compressed by the expanded pyramids in __________.

autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

45

The most common intra-abdominal malignant renal tumor is _________ in young children.

Wilms' tumor

46

A (n) _________ is a malignant tumor that arises in sympathetic chain ganglia and adrenal medulla; it may be dectected on antenatal sonography or at birth.

neuroblastoma

47

About half of neuroblastoma tumors arise in the medulla of the ________, although tumors have also been found in the neck, mediastinum, retroperitoneum, and pelvis.

adrenal gland

48

Sonographically, adrenal ________ results in ovoid enlargement of the gland or a portion of the gland.

hemorrhage