Neonatal and Pediatric Pelvis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neonatal and Pediatric Pelvis Deck (55):
1

Anomaly of the uterus in which only one horn develops

unicornuate uterus

2

Duplication of the uterus and uterine horn or branches

bicornuate uterus

3

Condition in which both ovarian and testicular tissues are present

hermaphoroditism

4

Cell produced at an early stage in the formation of an ovum

oogonium

5

Bilateral absence of testes

anorchidism

6

Complete duplication of the uterus, cervix, and vagina

uterus didelphys

7

Failure of the testes to descend into the scrotum; testicles remain within the abdomen or groin

cryptorchidism

8

Either of the paired ducts that form adjacent to the mesonephric ducts in the embryo

paramesonephric ducts

9

Absence of one testis (usually is left sided)

monochordism

10

Blood-filled vagina and uterus

hematometrocolpos

11

Sonographic finding when the phallus elongates to form the penis

"turtle" sign

12

Early or primitive ovum before it has developed completely

oocyte

13

Concerning or characteristic of the same sex

isosexual

14

Fluid-filled vagina

hydrocolpos

15

Fluid-filled vagina and uterus

hydrometrocolpos

16

The first parts of the genital system to develop are the

gonads

17

At about 16 wks of gestation, the cortical cords break up into isolated cell clusters called primordial follicles, each of which contains a ___________ derived from the primordial germ cell.

oogonium

18

Before birth all oogonia enlarge to form primary __________, and most of them have entered the first meiotic prophase, but this process remains in an arrested state until puberty.

oocytes

19

All embryos have identical pairs of __________ ducts that develop into the female reproductive system.

genital

20

Even though the genetic sex of an embryo is determined at fertilization by the kind of sperm that fertilizes the ovum, there are no morphologic indications of maleness of femaleness until the ______ gestational week.

9th

21

External organs are fully developed by the _____ wk.

12th

22

The sonographic evaluation of the neonatal and pediatric pelvic cavity requires a distended ____

urinary bladder

23

In the newborn female, the uterus is prominent and thickened with a brightly ____________ endometrial lining caused by the hormonal stimulation received in utero.

echogenic

24

The uterus is pear shaped in configuration with a length of approximately 3.5 cm and a funds__________ than the cervix.

smaller

25

The maternal hormones stimulate the initial size of the uterine cavity after birth; as these hormones _________, so does the uterine size.

decrease

26

The uterus increases in size after the age of 7, with the greatest increase in size occurring after the onset of puberty, when the funds becomes much ______ than the cervix.

larger

27

It is not until ______ that the uterine shape and size dramatically changes. The uterine length increases to 5 to 7 cm and the funds-to-cervix ratio becomes 3:1.

puberty

28

The uterus is supplied by the bilateral _______ arteries, which are branches of the internal iliac arteries.

uterine

29

Color flow Doppler may demonstrate flow in the ____________ tissue with little or no flow in the endometrium.

myometrial

30

The appearance of the ovary in the neonatal period is ____________ secondary to tiny cysts.

heterogeneous

31

The blood supply to the ovary is from the _______ artery (originates directly from the aorta) and from the uterine artery, which supplies an adnexal branch to each ovary.

ovarian

32

If mullerian anomalies are encountered, the __________ should be examined for ipsilateral renal agenesis or morphologic abnormalities.

kidneys

33

Vaginal __________ is diagnosed by the development of hydrocolpos, hydrometrocolpos, or hematometrocolpos.

atresia

34

Sonography demonstrates a uterus that is long and slender ("______________" shaped) and deviated to one side.

cigar

35

A complete duplication of the uterus, cervix, and vagina is __________

uterus didelphys

36

A duplication of the uterus with a common cervix is _________

bicornuate uterus

37

A uterus that is normal in size and shape externally but whose cavity is T shaped with an irregular contour is associated with ____________ exposure

diethylstilbestrol

38

In ______________ the embryo has the potential to develop as a male or female.

hermaphrodites

39

True precocious puberty is always _____________ and involves the development of secondary sexual characteristics and an increase in the size and activity of the gonads.

isosexual

40

Precocious pseudopuberty involves the maturation of secondary sexual characteristics but not the __________ because there is no activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

gonad

41

Excessive exogenous synthesis of gonadal _______ (by the adrenal gland, tumors or cysts) is the most common cause of precocious pseudo puberty: prolonged exposure to exogenous gonadal hormones may mature that central nervous system and cause true precocious puberty in some children.

steroids

42

Ovarian cysts develop from ovarian _______

follicles

43

________ is secreted by the pituitary gland and causes an increase in both the number and the size of the small follicles.

FSH

44

The most common primary complications of ovarian cysts are _______ and ___________

hemorrhage, salpingotorsion

45

Torsion of the ovary may occur at any age, from neonate to adult: however, most torsion problems occur within the first _________ decades of life.

two

46

Torsion of the ovary and fallopian tube results from partial or complete rotation of the ovary on its ___________________

vascular pedicle

47

Ovarian torsion results in a compromise of arterial and venous flow, congestion of the ovarian parenchyma, and ultimately, ______________

hemorrhagic infarction

48

The most common pediatric germ cell tumor is the benign mature ___________, or dermoid cyst

teratoma

49

Mural nodules and echogenic foci with acoustic shadowing are typical sonographic findings for ____________

ovarian teratomas

50

Describe the normal sonographic appearance of the neonatal testes

normal scrotal sac contains two testes that appear homogeneous with low to medium level echogenicity

51

At what age is the echogenic mediastinum testes and epididymis seen?

after puberty

52

Between gestational weeks __________ and ______, each testis descends via the inguinal canal into the scrotal sac. If this does not occur, the condition is called ___________ testes.

25 and 32; undescended

53

3 most common causes of acute pain and swelling in the pediatric male patient

testicular torsion, epididymitis, testicular trauma

54

The two most common causes of the acute scrotum in the male neonate, infant, and adolescent patient are ___________ and _______________

testicular torsion, epididymitis

55

Name the two testicular tumors found in children under the age of 3 with cryptorchid testis

seminomas (malignant), gonadoblastomas (benign)
in children younger than 3 the incidence of malignancy in a cryptorchid testis is increased