Flashcards in Chapter 30 Neonatal Spine Deck (46):
Protrusion of the meninges through the gap in the spine, the skin covering being vestigial.
Bundle of nerve roots from the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal spinal nerves that descend nearly vertically from the spinal cord until they reach their respective openings in the vertebral column
Slender tapering terminal section of the spinal cord
Caudal end of the spinal cord
Fixed spinal cord that is in an abnormal position
tethered spinal cord
Congenital fissure of the spinal cord, frequently associated with spina bifida cystica
Open (non-skin-covered lesions) neural tube defects, such as myelomeningocele and meningocele
spina bifida aperta
Dilation of the central canal of the spinal cord
Describes anomalies associated with incomplete embryologic development
Closed (skin-covered lesions) neural tube defects, such as spinal lipoma and tethered cord
spina bifida occulta
Cleft spinal cord resulting from failure of the neural tube to close
Spinal cord and nerve roots are exposed, often adhering to the fine membrane that overlies them
Common benign tumor composed of fat cells
One of the clinical signs of a spinal problem in an infant is a(n) ___________ on the posterior surface of the body along the spinal canal.
Other suspicious findings that an abnormality may be present include a(n) __________, a raised midline area, a(n) _________ patch, or even a tail-like projection from the lower spine.
A dimple is suspicious if it is greater than _________ from the anus.
Spinal _____________ includes disorders of the spine involving absent or incomplete closure of the neural tube.
The defects of the spinal canal occur in the first _____ weeks of life as the fetal nervous system develops.
The bony spine, meninges, and muscle form the __________.
Incomplete separation of the neural tube from the ectoderm may result in cord tethering, _____________, or a dermal sinus.
If the neural tube fails to fold and fuse in midline, defects, such as _____________, occur.
Within the vertebral cavity lie the spinal cord, the roots of the spinal nerves, and the covering ____________, which provide protection for the vertebral column.
Each vertebra consists of a rounded body __________ and a vertebral arch _________.
The vertebrae enclose a space called the vertebral _____________, through which run the spinal cord and its coverings.
The vertebral arch consists of a pair of cylindrical pedicles, which form the sides of the arch, and a pair of flattened ___________, which complete the arch posteriorly.
Laterally the sacrum articulates with the two iliac bones to form the ________ joints.
The laminae of the fifth sacral vertebra (and sometimes those of the fourth) fail to meet in the midline, forming the sacral __________.
The ___________ disks are responsible for one fourth of the length of vertebral column.
Each disk consists of a peripheral part, the annulus __________, the central part, the necleus _________.
The spinal cord begins above the foramen magnum, where it continues with the medulla oblongata of the brain. In the younger child, it is relatively longer and ends at the upper border of the _______ lumbar vertebra.
Inferiorly the cord tapers off into the conus ________, from the apex of which a prolongation of the pia matter, the filum __________, descends to be attached to the back of the coccyx.
The cord has a deep longitudinal fissure in the midline anteriorly called the anterior _________ fissure, and a shallow furrow on the posterior surface called the posterior median sulcus.
The lower nerve roots together are called the ______________.
The spinal cord is surrounded by three meninges: the ________ mater, the ___________ mater, and the ________ mater.
dura; arachnoid, pia
The most external membrane is the _______ mater and is a dense, strong, fibrous sheet that encloses the spinal cord and cauda equina.
The _________ mater is a delicate impermeable membrane covering the spinal cord and lying between the pia mater internally and the dura mater externally.
The vascular membrane that closely covers the spinal cord is the ________ mater; below it fuses with the filum terminale.
The spinal cord is _________ with slightly echogenic borders and an echogenic line extending longitudinally along its midline.
This central echo complex represents or is close to the cord's central _______.
The spinal cord and roots of the cauda equina are normally observed to ________ with frequency of the heartbeat, and there is also a superimposed motion that occurs with respirations.
The ________ spinal cord is a pathologic fixation of the spinal cord in an abnormal caudal location so that the cord suffers mechanical stretching, distortion, and ischemia with daily activities, growth, and development.
In addition to being in a more caudal location, the tethered spinal cord is often fixed ________ within the canal.
Lipomas are usually ________ and may present as a small or large mass.
A(n) ___________ shows a flat nontubulated cord (neural placode) with nerve roots extending into the defect.
In contrast, a(n) __________ shows nothing but fluid within the sac.