Chapter 30 Neonatal Spine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 30 Neonatal Spine Deck (46):
1

Protrusion of the meninges through the gap in the spine, the skin covering being vestigial.

meningocele

2

Bundle of nerve roots from the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal spinal nerves that descend nearly vertically from the spinal cord until they reach their respective openings in the vertebral column

cauda equina

3

Slender tapering terminal section of the spinal cord

filum terminale

4

Caudal end of the spinal cord

conus medullaris

5

Fixed spinal cord that is in an abnormal position

tethered spinal cord

6

Congenital fissure of the spinal cord, frequently associated with spina bifida cystica

diastematomyelia

7

Open (non-skin-covered lesions) neural tube defects, such as myelomeningocele and meningocele

spina bifida aperta

8

Dilation of the central canal of the spinal cord

hydromyelia

9

Describes anomalies associated with incomplete embryologic development

dysraphic

10

Closed (skin-covered lesions) neural tube defects, such as spinal lipoma and tethered cord

spina bifida occulta

11

Cleft spinal cord resulting from failure of the neural tube to close

myeloschisis

12

Spinal cord and nerve roots are exposed, often adhering to the fine membrane that overlies them

myelomeningocele

13

Common benign tumor composed of fat cells

lipoma

14

One of the clinical signs of a spinal problem in an infant is a(n) ___________ on the posterior surface of the body along the spinal canal.

dimple

15

Other suspicious findings that an abnormality may be present include a(n) __________, a raised midline area, a(n) _________ patch, or even a tail-like projection from the lower spine.

hemangioma; hairy

16

A dimple is suspicious if it is greater than _________ from the anus.

1 inch

17

Spinal _____________ includes disorders of the spine involving absent or incomplete closure of the neural tube.

dysraphism

18

The defects of the spinal canal occur in the first _____ weeks of life as the fetal nervous system develops.

8.5

19

The bony spine, meninges, and muscle form the __________.

mesoderm

20

Incomplete separation of the neural tube from the ectoderm may result in cord tethering, _____________, or a dermal sinus.

diastematomyelia

21

If the neural tube fails to fold and fuse in midline, defects, such as _____________, occur.

myelomeningocele

22

Within the vertebral cavity lie the spinal cord, the roots of the spinal nerves, and the covering ____________, which provide protection for the vertebral column.

meninges

23

Each vertebra consists of a rounded body __________ and a vertebral arch _________.

anteriorly; posteriorly

24

The vertebrae enclose a space called the vertebral _____________, through which run the spinal cord and its coverings.

foramen

25

The vertebral arch consists of a pair of cylindrical pedicles, which form the sides of the arch, and a pair of flattened ___________, which complete the arch posteriorly.

laminae

26

Laterally the sacrum articulates with the two iliac bones to form the ________ joints.

sacroiliac

27

The laminae of the fifth sacral vertebra (and sometimes those of the fourth) fail to meet in the midline, forming the sacral __________.

hiatus

28

The ___________ disks are responsible for one fourth of the length of vertebral column.

intervertebral

29

Each disk consists of a peripheral part, the annulus __________, the central part, the necleus _________.

fibrosus; pulposus

30

The spinal cord begins above the foramen magnum, where it continues with the medulla oblongata of the brain. In the younger child, it is relatively longer and ends at the upper border of the _______ lumbar vertebra.

third

31

Inferiorly the cord tapers off into the conus ________, from the apex of which a prolongation of the pia matter, the filum __________, descends to be attached to the back of the coccyx.

medullaris; terminale

32

The cord has a deep longitudinal fissure in the midline anteriorly called the anterior _________ fissure, and a shallow furrow on the posterior surface called the posterior median sulcus.

median

33

The lower nerve roots together are called the ______________.

cauda equina

34

The spinal cord is surrounded by three meninges: the ________ mater, the ___________ mater, and the ________ mater.

dura; arachnoid, pia

35

The most external membrane is the _______ mater and is a dense, strong, fibrous sheet that encloses the spinal cord and cauda equina.

dura

36

The _________ mater is a delicate impermeable membrane covering the spinal cord and lying between the pia mater internally and the dura mater externally.

arachnoid

37

The vascular membrane that closely covers the spinal cord is the ________ mater; below it fuses with the filum terminale.

pia

38

The spinal cord is _________ with slightly echogenic borders and an echogenic line extending longitudinally along its midline.

hypoechoic

39

This central echo complex represents or is close to the cord's central _______.

canal

40

The spinal cord and roots of the cauda equina are normally observed to ________ with frequency of the heartbeat, and there is also a superimposed motion that occurs with respirations.

oscillate

41

The ________ spinal cord is a pathologic fixation of the spinal cord in an abnormal caudal location so that the cord suffers mechanical stretching, distortion, and ischemia with daily activities, growth, and development.

tethered

42

In addition to being in a more caudal location, the tethered spinal cord is often fixed ________ within the canal.

eccentrically

43

Lipomas are usually ________ and may present as a small or large mass.

echogenic

44

A(n) ___________ shows a flat nontubulated cord (neural placode) with nerve roots extending into the defect.

myelomeningocele

45

In contrast, a(n) __________ shows nothing but fluid within the sac.

meningocele

46

______________ seem to have high association with tethered spinal cord.

Hemangiomas