Neonatal Ch 25 part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neonatal Ch 25 part 2 Deck (47):
1

the central nervous system develops from the ______ plate

neural

2

consisting of both the brain and the spinal cord, the ______ differentiates into the central nervous system

neural tube

3

the thalami fuse in the midline and form a fusion called the ______

massa intermedia

4

along the choroidal fissure, the medial wall of the developing cerebral hemisphere becomes thin. Invaginations of vascular pia form the ______ of the lateral ventricles at this side

choroid plexus

5

as the mesenchyme in trapped in the midline with the growth of the hemispheres, the ______ is formed

flax cerebri

6

the ______ forms from the cavity of the hindbrain and contains choroid plexus like the lateral and third ventricles

fourth ventricle

7

the space between the bones of the skull are called ______

fontanelles

8

the ______ fontanelle is located at the top of the neonatal head and may be easily felt as the "soft spot"

anterior

9

a double-layered outer membrane that forms the toughest barrier is the ______

dura mater

10

a V-shaped echogenic structure known as the ______ separates the cerebrum and the cerebellum; it is an extension of the flax cerebri

tentorium cerebelli

11

the ______ ventricles communicate with the third ventricle through the interventricular foramen of Monro

lateral

12

the cavum septum pellucidum forms the medial wall and the ______ forms the roof

corpus callosum

13

the ______ touches the inferior lateral ventricular wall and the body of the caudate ______ borders the superior wall

thalamus, nucleus

14

the third and forth ventricles are connected by the ______

aqueduct of Syvius

15

the lateral angles of the fourth ventricle form the foramen of ______

luschka

16

the ______ surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord from physical impact

cerebrospinal fluid

17

the mass of special cells that regulate the intraventricular pressure by secretion or absorption of cerebral spinal fluid is the ______

choroid plexus

18

the ______ is located along the lateral-most aspect of the brain and is the area where the middle cerebral artery is located

Sylvian fissure

19

the ______ borders the third ventricle and connects through the middle of the third ventricle by the massa intermedia

thalamus

20

the ______ extends from the pons to the foramen magnum where it continues as the spinal cord

medulla oblongata

21

three pairs of nerve tracts, the ______, connects the cerebellum to the brain stem

cerebellar peduncles

22

both cerebral hemispheres, the basal ganglia, the lateral and third ventricles, the interhemispheric fissure, and the subarachnoid space surrounding the hemispheres are shown in ______ studies

supratentorial

23

the cerebellum, the brain stem, the fourth ventricle, and the basal cisterns are visualized in ______ studies

infratentonal

24

technically a _______ view is 90 degrees to Reid's baseline

coronal

25

when the transducer is angles ______,the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles appear as slitlike hypoechoic to cystic formations

anteriorly

26

sonography depicts the choroid plexus as a very ______ structure inside the ventricular cavities surrounding the thalamic nuclei

echogenic

27

in premature infants, the caudate nuclei may have ______ echogenicity than the rest of the brain parenchyma

higher

28

the ______ ventricle appears in the midline as a small anechoic space approximately 2 to 3 mm wide, located anteriorly to the vermis

fourth

29

a congenital anomaly associated with spina bifida is a ______ malformation in which the cerebellum and brain stem are pulled toward the spinal cord and secondary hydrocephalus develops

chiari

30

chiari malformation is frequently associated with myelomeningocele, ______ dilation of the third ventricle, and absence of the septum pellucidum

hydrocephalus

31

______ is characterized by a grossly abnormal brain in which there is a common large central ventricle

holoprosencephaly

32

dandy-walker syndrome is a congenital anomaly in which a huge ______ ventricle cyst occupies the area where the cerebellum usually lies, with secondary dilation of the third and lateral ventricles

fourth

33

a dandy-walker variant is present when there is an enlarge ______ communicating with the fourth ventricle in the presence of a normal of hypoplastic cerebellar vermis

cistorna magna

34

complete absences of the ______ is distinguished by narrow frontal horns, as well as marked separation of the anterior horns and bodies of the lateral ventricles associated with widening of the occipital horns and the third ventricle

corpus callosum

35

any condition in which enlargement of the ventricular system is caused by an imbalance between production and reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is referred to as ______

hydrocephalus

36

the CSF pathways are open within the ventricular system in ______ hydrocephalus, but there is decreased absorption of CSF

communicating

37

the most common cause of congenital hydrocephalus is ______

aqueductal stenosis

38

the most common hemorrhagic lesions in preterm newborn infants are ______ hemorrhages

subependymal- intraventricular

39

subependymal hemorrhages are caused by capillary bleeding in the ______

germinal matrix

40

studies from the anterior fontanelle may not detect small IVH's because intraventricular blood tends to "settle out" in the ______ horns

posterior

41

intraparenchymal hemorrhages appear as very ______ zones in the white matter adjacent to the lateral ventricles

echogenic

42

______ can result from a variety of insults including respiratory failure, congenital heart disease, and sepsis

hypoxia

43

white matter ischemia leads to white matter volume loss or ______ leukomalacia

periventricular

44

the chronic stage of WMN is identified with ultrasound when ______ develops in the echogenic white matter

echolucencies

45

a common complication of purulent meningitis in newborn infants is ______

ventriculitis

46

______ occurs when the ependyma becomes thickened and hyperechoic as a result of irritation from hemorrhage within the ventricle

ependymilis

47

as the transducer is angled ______, the ventricles acquire a comma-like shape

posteriorly