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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (42):
1

You have to have ___ to have life.

carbon

2

Why is carbon important?

Can bond up to four atoms (covalent)
Carbon backbones leads to diverse molecular shapes

3

What is a condensation reaction?

combines small, similar subunits (monomers) into larger chain molecules (polymers), forms H20

4

What is hydrolysis?

H20 breaks polymers into smaller monomers

5

What are macromolecules?

organic polymers of life

6

Macromolecules include?

carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
nuclear acids (RNA, DNA)

7

What is the most abundant of the macromolecules?

carbohydrates

8

Why are carbohydrates important?

energy and energy storage
cell identification
cell structure

9

What are monosaccharides?

contain hydroxyl and carbonyl groups
used for energy/building units
water soluble, form rings in solution

10

What is polysaccharide functions?

energy storage
structure
alpha and beta glucose

11

Functions of lipids

insulation, padding, energy, vitamin transport, construction of sex hormones, " " cell membranes, production of vitamin D

12

Average american consumes how much sugar a day/year?

1/3lb day
140lbs year

13

Carb types?

monosaccharides
short chain carbs
polysaccharides

14

Greasy, oil lipids are?

hydrophobic nonpolar molecules

15

What is insoluble in water?

greasy, oil lipids

16

What do lipids consist of?

carbons & hydrogen
many - fatty acids

17

What are fats composed of?

3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule

18

Where are fats stored?

adipose tissue (for padding)

19

What are saturated fats?

solid at room temperature
no double bonds
stack together (butter, cheese)

20

What are unsaturated fats?

liquid at room temperature
1 or more double bond

21

Partially hydrogenated oils (trans fats) are what?

solidified plant oils
not natural/ increase shelf life

22

Steroids are composed of?

4 carbon rings

23

What is cholesterol?

a steroid that functions as a cell membrane component that can be remodeled into sex hormones and vitamin D

24

Phospholipids have?

a glycerol backbone, 2 FA tails and a phosphate head

25

Phospholipids composes?

the cell membrane

26

What is the function of a phospholipid?

act as a barrier

27

Proteins are involved in?

cell structure and function

28

Functions of proteins?

structural
storage
movement
transport
hormones
defense
enzymes

29

What are proteins?

1 or more folded polymers of amino acids

30

How to proteins have diversity?

20 amino acids

31

Each amino acid contains?

an amine group
a carboxyl group
a R group

32

How is a protein built?

amino acid monomers link together by condensation which form peptide bonds b/w the monomers

33

What is the primary structure of a protein?

unique** sequence of a.a's in polypeptide
controls final shape
instructed by DNA

34

What is the secondary structure of a protein?

H- bonding b/w atoms of polypetide's backbone
(Helices and pleated sheets)

35

What is the tertiary structure of a protein?

binding b/w R groups from irregular contortions

36

What is the quaternary structure of a protein?

2 or more domains interacting to from a single structure (globular/fibrous proteins)

37

What is denaturation?

unfolding of a protein which is dependent on the cellular environment

38

What are prions?

virus-like proteins that cause illness and trigger normal proteins to misfold

39

What are nucleic acids?

single/double stranded chains of nucleotide monomers

40

What are nucleotides?

5C sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base

41

What are some things nucleotides do?

act alone as
carriers ATP
enzyme helpers NAD & FAD
build polymers DNA & RNA

42

Types of nucleotides?

RNA - ribose sugar
DNA - deoxyribose sugar
5 different types of nitrogen bases