Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (42):
You have to have ___ to have life.
Why is carbon important?
Can bond up to four atoms (covalent)
Carbon backbones leads to diverse molecular shapes
What is a condensation reaction?
combines small, similar subunits (monomers) into larger chain molecules (polymers), forms H20
What is hydrolysis?
H20 breaks polymers into smaller monomers
What are macromolecules?
organic polymers of life
nuclear acids (RNA, DNA)
What is the most abundant of the macromolecules?
Why are carbohydrates important?
energy and energy storage
What are monosaccharides?
contain hydroxyl and carbonyl groups
used for energy/building units
water soluble, form rings in solution
What is polysaccharide functions?
alpha and beta glucose
Functions of lipids
insulation, padding, energy, vitamin transport, construction of sex hormones, " " cell membranes, production of vitamin D
Average american consumes how much sugar a day/year?
short chain carbs
Greasy, oil lipids are?
hydrophobic nonpolar molecules
What is insoluble in water?
greasy, oil lipids
What do lipids consist of?
carbons & hydrogen
many - fatty acids
What are fats composed of?
3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule
Where are fats stored?
adipose tissue (for padding)
What are saturated fats?
solid at room temperature
no double bonds
stack together (butter, cheese)
What are unsaturated fats?
liquid at room temperature
1 or more double bond
Partially hydrogenated oils (trans fats) are what?
solidified plant oils
not natural/ increase shelf life
Steroids are composed of?
4 carbon rings
What is cholesterol?
a steroid that functions as a cell membrane component that can be remodeled into sex hormones and vitamin D
a glycerol backbone, 2 FA tails and a phosphate head
the cell membrane
What is the function of a phospholipid?
act as a barrier
Proteins are involved in?
cell structure and function
Functions of proteins?
What are proteins?
1 or more folded polymers of amino acids
How to proteins have diversity?
20 amino acids
Each amino acid contains?
an amine group
a carboxyl group
a R group
How is a protein built?
amino acid monomers link together by condensation which form peptide bonds b/w the monomers
What is the primary structure of a protein?
unique** sequence of a.a's in polypeptide
controls final shape
instructed by DNA
What is the secondary structure of a protein?
H- bonding b/w atoms of polypetide's backbone
(Helices and pleated sheets)
What is the tertiary structure of a protein?
binding b/w R groups from irregular contortions
What is the quaternary structure of a protein?
2 or more domains interacting to from a single structure (globular/fibrous proteins)
What is denaturation?
unfolding of a protein which is dependent on the cellular environment
What are prions?
virus-like proteins that cause illness and trigger normal proteins to misfold
What are nucleic acids?
single/double stranded chains of nucleotide monomers
What are nucleotides?
5C sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base
What are some things nucleotides do?
act alone as
enzyme helpers NAD & FAD
build polymers DNA & RNA