Chapter 3 The Skeletal System A&P Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 The Skeletal System A&P Deck (112):
1

is the tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone

periosteum

2

is the dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones

compact bone (cortical bone)

3

is lighter and not as strong as compact bone. red bone marrow is located within

spongy (cancellous bone)

4

is the central cavity located in the shaft of long bones where it is surrounded by compact bone

medullary cavity

5

means pertaining to the inner section

medullary

6

is the tissue that lines the medullary cavity

endosteum

7

is located within the spongy bone, is a hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells

red bone marrow

8

means pertaining to the formation of blood cells

hemopoietic

9

functions as a fat storage area

yellow bone marrow

10

is the smooth, rubbery, blue-white connect tissue that acts as a shock absorber

cartilage

11

covers the surface of bones where they come together to form joints

articular cartilage

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is the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee

meniscus

13

is the shaft of a long bone

diaphysis

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are the wider ends of long bones such as the femur of the legs

epiphysis

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is the end of the bone located nearest to the midline

proximal epiphysis

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is the end of the bone located farthest away from the midline of the body

distal epiphysis

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is an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass

foramen

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is the opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes

foramen magnum

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is a normal projection on the surface of a bone that most commonly serves as an attachment for a muscle or tendon

process

20

is the bony projection located on the temporal bone just behind the ears

mastoid process

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are the place of union between two or more bones

joints (articulations)

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consists of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold the bones tightly together

fibrous joints (sutures)

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soft spots, are normally present on the skull of a newborn

fontanelles

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allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage

cartilaginous joints

25

allows some movement to facilitate childbirth. is located behind the pubic bones

pubic symphysis

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is created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions

synovial joint

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such as the hips and shoulders, allow a wide range of movement in many directions

ball-and-socket joints

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such as the knees and elbows, are synovial joints that allow movement primarily in one direction or plane

hinge joints

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is the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint

synovial capsule

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lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid

synovial membrane

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flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant

synovial fluid

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are bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connecting one bone to another bone or by joining a bone to cartilage

ligaments

33

is a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction

bursa

34

protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory system. consists of 80 bones

axial skeleton

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makes body movement possible and also protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction. consists of 126 bones

appendicular skeleton

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is made up of 8 bones of the skull

cranium

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is the anterior portion of the cranium that forms the forehead

frontal bone

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are two of the largest bones of the skull. form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium

parietal bones

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forms the back part of the skull and the base of the cranium

occiptal bone

40

form the sides and base of the cranium

temporal bones

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is the opening of the external auditor canal of the outer ear.

external auditor meatus

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is the external opening of a canal

meatus

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is an irregular, wedge-shaped bone at the base of the skull. makes contact with all other cranial bones

sphenoid bone

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is light, spongy bone located at the roof and sides of the nose

ethmoid bone

45

are the three tiny bones located in each middle ear

auditory ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes)

46

form the upper part of the bridge of the nose

nasal bones

47

known as the cheekbones, articulate with the frontal bones

zygomatic bones

48

form most of the upper jaw

maxillary bones (maxillae)

49

form the anterior part of the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose

palatine bones

50

make up part of the orbit at the inner angle

lacrimal bones

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are the thin, scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose

inferior conchae

52

forms the base for the nasal septum

vomer bone

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also known as the jawbone, is the only movable bone of the skull

mandible

54

also known as the rib cage, is the bony structure that protects the heart and lungs

thoracic cavity

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the first seven pair of ribs are called; attach anteriorly to the sternum

true ribs

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next three pairs of ribs; attach anterior to cartilage that connects them to the sternum

false ribs

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last two ribs; attach posteriorly to the vertebrae but not attached anteriorly

floating ribs

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also known as the breast bone; dagger-shaped bone located in the middle of the chest

sternum

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is the bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum

manubrium

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is the bony structure that forms the middle portion of the sternum

body of the sternum

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is the structure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum

xiphoid process

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supports the arms and hands. also known as the shoulder girdle

pectoral girdle

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known as the collar bone, is a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula

clavicle

64

is also known as the shoulder blader

scapula

65

is an extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder

acromion

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is the bone of the upper arm

humerus

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is the smaller and shorter bone in the forearm

radius

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is the largest and longer bone of the forearm

ulna

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commonly known as the funny bone, is a large projection on the upper end of the ulna

olecranon process

70

are the bones that form the wrist

carpals

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are the five bones that form the palm of the hand

metacarpals

72

are the 14 bones of the fingers and the bones of the toes

phalanges

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is also known as the vertebral column, protects the spinal cord and supports the head and body

spinal column

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anterior portion of vertebra

body of vertebrae

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the posterior portion of a vertebra is known as the

lamina

76

is the opening in the middle of the vertebra. allows spinal cord to pass through

vertebral foramen

77

made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other

intervertebral disks

78

are the first set of vertebrae and they form the neck

cervical vertebrae

79

how many cervical vertebrae are there

7

80

known as T1-T12, are the second set of vertebrae. surround the ribs

thoracic vertebrae

81

how many thoracic vertebrae are there

12

82

make up the third set of vertebrae, and together they form the inward curve of the lower spine

lumbar vertebrae

83

how many lumbar vertebrae are there

5

84

is the slightly curved triangular-shaped bone near the base of the spine

sacrum

85

how many sacral vertebrae are there

5

86

is also known as the tailbone, forms the end of the spine and is actually made up of four small vertebrae that are fused together

coccyx

87

how many coccygeal vertebrae are there

4

88

protects internal organs and supports the lower extremities

pelvic girdle

89

is the broad-shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone

ilium

90

is the slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and posterior portion of ilium

sacroiliac

91

forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone

ischium

92

forms the anterior portion of the pubic bone

pubis

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is the cartilaginous joint that unites the left and right pubic bone

pubic symphysis

94

also known as the hip socket, is the large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis

acetabulum

95

largest bone in the body

femur

96

also known as the kneecap

patella

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the posterior aspect behind the knee

popliteal

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known as the shinbone, is the larger anterior weight-bearing bone of the lower leg

tibia

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is the smaller of the two bones of the lower leg and is located laterally

fibula

100

is a rounded bony projection on the tibia and fibula on the sides of each ankle joint

malleolus

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is the ankle bone that articulates with the tibia and fibula

talus

102

also known as the heel bone, largest of the tarsal bones

calcaneus

103

form that part of the foot to which the toes are attached, sole of the foot

metatarsals

104

are the bones of the toes. and big toes

phalanges

105

what is the thumb commonly referred to as

Pollux

106

what is the big toe commonly referred to as

Hallux

107

specializes in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine

chiropractor

108

is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles

orthopedic surgeon (orthopedist)

109

uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation

osteopath

110

specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot

podiatrist

111

is a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis and tendinitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissues

rheumatologist

112

the use of a syringe to withdraw the liquid bone marrow

bone marrow aspiration

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