Chapter 3 The Skeletal System Medical Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3 The Skeletal System Medical Terms Deck (109):
1

a transplant in which the recipient receives bone marrow from a compatible donor

allogenic bone marrow transplant

2

a form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae

ankylosing spondylitis

3

the loss of absence of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure

ankylosis

4

an inflammatory condition of one or more joints

arthritis

5

surgical puncture of the joint space to remove synovial fluid for analysis

arthrocentesis

6

a surgical procedure to stiffen a joint

arthrodesis (surgical ankylosis) 

7

surgical loosening of an anylosed joint

arthrolysis

8

surgical repair of a damaged joint; also the surgical replacement of a joint with an artificial joint

arthroplasty

9

stiffness of the joints, especially in elderly

arthrosclerosis

10

a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint

arthroscopic surgery

11

visual examination of the internal structure of a joint using an arthroscope

arthroscopy

12

a transplant utilizing the patient's own bone marrow that was harvested before treatment began

autologous bone marrow transplant

13

a diagnostic test to determine losses or changes in bone density

bone density testing

14

a diagnostic test to determine why blood cells are abnormal or to find a donor match for a bone marrow transplant

bone marrow biopsy

15

cancer treatment in which abnormal bone marrow is destroyed and replaced with new stem cells

bone marrow transplant

16

a specialized nuclear scan that identifies new area of bone growth or breakdown

bone scan

17

inflammation of a bursa

bursitis

18

a bulging deposit that forms around the area of the break in a bone; also a thickening of the skin that is caused by repeated rubbing

callus

19

a slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells

chondroma

20

abnormal softening of the cartilage

chondromalacia

21

surgical repair of damaged cartilage

chondroplasty

22

a fracture in which the bone is broken but there is no open wound in the skin

closed fracture (simple fracture of complete fracture)

23

the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation

closed reduction (manipulation) 

24

a fracture at the lower end of the radius that occurs when a person tries to break a fall by landing on his or her hand

Colles' fracture

25

a fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed

comminuted fracture

26

a fracture in which the bone is pressed together on itself

compression fracture (vertebral crush fracture) 

27

an inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum

costochondritis

28

surgical removal of a portion of the skull

craniectomy

29

surgical repair of the skull

cranioplasty

30

the use of gentle touch to help the body release tension in order to correct restrictions resulting from stress on the CNS

craniosacral therapy

31

a malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures

craniostenosis

32

a surgical incision or opening into the skull

craniotomy

33

the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together

crepitation (crepitus) 

34

the total displacement of a bone from its joint

dislocation (luxation) 

35

a low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density

dual x-ray absorptiometry

36

a fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues and bone so that an external appliance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing

external fixation

37

the release of fat cells from yellow bone marrow into the bloodstream when a long bone is fractured

fat embolus

38

a bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous (scar-like) tissue

fibrous dysplasia

39

a broken bone

fracture

40

a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints

gouty arthritis (gout) 

41

a type of fracture in which the bone is bent and only partially broken

greenstick fracture (incomplete fracture) 

42

an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe

hallux valgus (bunion) 

43

blood within a joint

hemarthrosis

44

the breaking apart of a intervertebral disk that results in pressure or spinal nerve roots

herniated disk (slipped or ruptured disk) 

45

an alternative to total hip replacement, a metal cap is placed over the head of the femur to allow it to move smoothly over a mental lining in the acetabulum

hip resurfacing

46

the act of holding, suturing, or fastening a bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast

immobilization (stabilization) 

47

fracture treatment in which pins or a plate are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place

internal fixation (Open reduction internal fixation (ORIF)) 

48

an autoimmune disorder affecting children ages 16 years or less, with symptoms that include stifness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue 

juvenile rheumatoid arthritis 

49

an abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side

kyphosis (humpback or Dowager's hump) 

50

the surgical removal of a lamina from a vertebra

laminectomy

51

an abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine

lordosis (sway back) 

52

pain of the lumbar region of the spine

lumbago (low back pain) 

53

an imaging technique that uses a combination of radio waves and a strong magnetic field to create signals that are sent to a computer and converted into images of any plane through the body

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

54

a type of cancer that occurs in blood making cells of the red bone marrow

myeloma

55

any pathological change or disease of the spinal cord

myelopathy

56

a tumor on the spinal cord

myelosis

57

a fracture that occurs at an angle across the bone

oblique fracture

58

a fracture in which the bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin

open fracture (compound fracture) 

59

a mechanical appliance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specifically designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function

orthotic

60

pain in a bone

ostealgia (osteodynia) 

61

inflammation of bone

osteitis (ostitis) 

62

the type of arthritis most commonly associated with aging

osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) 

63

a benign bony projection covered with cartilage

osteochondroma

64

the surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity

osteoclasis

65

abnormal softening of bones in adults

osteomalacia (adult rickets) 

66

inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone

osteomyelitis

67

the death of bone tissue due to an insufficient blood supply

osteonecrosis

68

mechanical spinal adjustment used in conjunction with conventional medical therapies by an osteopath

osteopathic manipulative therapy

69

thinner than average bone density

osteopenia

70

are also known as bone spurs

osteophytes

71

the surgical repair of a bone or bones

osteoplasty

72

a marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging

osteoporosis

73

a fracture of hip weakened by osteoporosis that can occur spontaneously or as the result of a fall

osteoporotic hip fracture (broken hip) 

74

surgical suturing or wiring together of bone

osteorrhaphy

75

the surgical cutting of a bone

osteotomy

76

a bone disease of unknown cause, characterized by excessive breakdown of bone tissue followed by abnormal bone formation

Paget's disease (osteitis deformans) 

77

a procedure in which only part of the knee is replaced

partial knee replacement (PKR)

78

occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain

pathologic fracture

79

a procedure to treat a herniated intervertebral disk

percutaneous diskectomy

80

treatment of osteoporosis-related compression fractures by injecting bone cement to stabilize compression fractures within the spinal column

percutaneous vertebroplasty

81

an incision through the periosteum to the bone

periosteotomy

82

inflammation of the periosteum

periostitis

83

a geriatric inflammatory disorder of the muscles and joints characterized by pain and stiffness

polymyalgia rheumatica

84

a relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone

primary bone cancer

85

a substitute for a diseased or missing part

prosthesis

86

the image produced by the use of radiant energy to visualize conditions such as bone fractures; also known as x-rays

radiograph (x-ray) 

87

the replacement of a worn or failed implant

revision surgery

88

a chronic disorder in which the synovial membranes, and other body tissues, are inflamed and thickened

rheumatoid arthritis

89

a deficiency disease occurring in children involving defective bone growth due to vitamin D deficiency

Rickets (infantile osteomalacia) 

90

an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine

scoliosis

91

tumors that have metastasized to bones from other organs such as the breasts and lungs

secondary bone cancer

92

condition resulting from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appropriate size of the head and trunk

short stature (dwarfism) 

93

a congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy in which the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord

spina bifida

94

a technique to immobilize part of the spine by joining together two or more vertebrae

spinal fusion

95

a fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart

spiral fracture

96

the forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra below it

spondylolisthesis

97

a degenerative disorder that can caused the loss of normal spinal structure and function

spondylosis (spinal osteoarthritis) 

98

an injury to a joint, such as ankle, knee, or wrist, that usually involves a wrenched or torn ligament

sprain

99

a small crack in a bone that often develops from chronic, excessive impact

stress fracture

100

the partial displacement of a bone from its joint

subluxation

101

the surgical removal of a synovial membrane from joint

synovectomy

102

a tumor of the tissues surrounding a synovial joint

synovial sarcoma

103

inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint

synovitis

104

any congenital deformity of the foot involving the ankle bones

talipes (club foot) 

105

surgery performed to restore a damaged hip to full function by removing the head of the femur and replacing it with a metal ball

total hip replacement (total hip arthroplasty)

106

surgical placement of an artificial joint during which all parts of the knee are replaced

total knee replacement (total knee arthroplasty) 

107

a fracture that occurs straight across the bone

transverse fracture

108

a screening test for osteoporosis or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass

ultrasonic bone density testing

109

injections to add fluid to a joint

viscosupplementation

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