Chapter 30: Plant Diversity 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 30: Plant Diversity 2 Deck (22)
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1

Seed Plants

  •  Collectively called the spermatophytes
  •  Two clades
  • 1. Gymnosperms
  • 2. Angiosperms

2

Seed Plant Adaptations

  •  Five crucial adaptations
    • 1. Reduced gametophytes
    • 2. Heterospory
    • 3. Ovules
    • 4. Pollen
    • 5. Seeds

3

​Reduced Gametophyte

  •  Microscopic
  •  Retained in sporangium
  •  Dependent on sporophyte
    •  protection
    •  nutrients

4

Heterospory

  •  is the production of two kinds of spores
    • 1. Megasporangia – megaspores
    • 2. Microsporangia – microspores
  •  Spores give rise to gametophyte

5

Ovule

  •  Components include
    • 1. Megasporangium
    • 2. Megaspore
    • 3. Integuments

6

Pollen Grain

  •  Composed of
    • 1. Male gametophyte
    • 2. Pollen wall
  •  Often modified for dispersal

7

​Seed Advantages

  •  Advantages
    • 1. Seed coat
    • 2. Food supply
    • 3. Long term dormancy
    • 4. Dispersal 

8

Gymnosperms

  •  Seeds on cones
  •  Four phyla
    • 1. Cycadophyta
    • 2. Ginkgophyta
    • 3. Gnetophyta
    • 4. Coniferophyta

9

Phylum Cycadophyta

  •  Large cones, palmlike leaves
  •  Severely threatened

10

Phylum Ginkgophyta

  •  One living species, Gingko biloba
  •  Highly tolerant to air pollution 

11

Phylum Gnetophyta

  •  Composed of three genera
  •  Wide range appearance, locations

12

Phylum Coniferophyta

  • Largest phyla
  •  Most are evergreens
    •  photosynthesize all year
  •  “Woody cones & needles”

13

Gymnosperm Life Cycle

  •  Three key features
    • 1. Dominant sporophyte
    • 2. Sperm to ovule by pollen
    • 3. Seeds from fertilized ovules

14

Life Cycle of Pine

15

Angiosperms

  •  Commonly called flowering plants
  •  Phylum Anthophyta
  •  Most diverse; wide spread of all plants
  •  Two key features
    • 1. Flowers
    • 2. Fruit

16

Flower

  • Specialized for sexual reproduction
  • Four modified leaves
    • 1. Sepals
    • 2. Petals
    • 3. Carpels/Pistils
    • 4. Stamens
  • Complete or Incomplete

17

Fruit

  • is a mature ovary
  • Protect seeds
  • Aid in dispersal
  • Can be fleshy or dry

18

Angiosperm Life Cycle

19

Angiosperm Diversity

  •  Two main groups
    • 1. Monocots
    • 2. Eudicots – “true dicots” 
    • 3. Basal angiosperms
    • 4. Magnoliids

20

Basal Angiosperms

21

Magnoliids

22

Monocots vs. Eudicot