Chapter 35: Plant Form and Function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 35: Plant Form and Function Deck (19)
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1

Plant Systems

  • Draw resources from two different environments
  • Two basic types:
    • Shoot System - above ground
    • Root System - below ground

2

Plant Organs

  • Make up systems
  • Three types: 
    1. Leaf - shoot 
    2. Stem - shoot
    3. Roots

3

​Roots

  • Functions in anchorage, absorption and storage
  • Two systems:
    1. Taproot
    2. Fibrous

4

Taproot

  • Has a main vertical root
  • Many branch roots
  • Deep penetration
  • Generally found in gymnosperms

5

Fibrous Root

  • Many are adventitious - emerge from stem, leafs
  • Thin roots
  • Spread out shallow soils
  • Generally found in monocots

6

Root Adaptations (picture)

7

Stems

  • Raises the leaf to sunlight
  • Composed
    • Nodes - point of leaf attachment
    • Internodes - segments b/w nodes
  • Axillary Bud - can form branches
  • Apical Bud - vertical growth

8

Leaf

  • Is the main photosynthetic organ
  • Composed of:
    • blade
    • petiole
  • Vein and leaf morphology used for identification

9

Leaf Shape Variation

10

Tissue Systems

  • Plants organs made of tissue
  • Tissue Systems: 
    • Dermal
    • Vascular
    • Ground

11

Dermal Tissue

  • Form the outer covering, first line of defense
  • Modified by organ
    1. Leaf/Stem: covered by cuticle
      • prevents waters loss
    2. Root: extension called root hairs
      • aid in absorption

12

Vascular Tissue

  • Carries out long distance transport
  • Two types
    1. Xylem - conducts water, minerals
    2. Phloem - transports sugars
  • Arrangement of vascular tissues varies by organ

13

Ground Tissue

  • Functions in storage, photosynthesis, support
  • Arrangement varies
    1. Cortex - outside the vascular tissue
    2. Pith - internal to vascular tissue

14

​Plant Cells

  • Many Specialized in structure and function
  • Common types
    1. Parenchyma
    2. Collenchyma
    3. Sclerenchyma
    4. Xylem
    5. Phloem

15

Parenchyma

  • most abundant type, thin primary cell walls
  • functions include photosynthesis and storage

16

Collenchyma

  • Have unevenly thickened primary cell walls
  • Function include flexible support

17

Sclerenchyma

  • Thick secondary cell walls
  • Function include rigid support
  • Two types: 
    1. Sclereids - boxier, irregular shape
    2. Fiber cells - grouped, long strands

18

Vascular Tissue: Xylem

  • Conducts water and minerals
  • Two types of cells
    1. Tracheids - long, tapered
    2. Vessel elements - short, wider
  • Have thick secondary walls, becomes wood

19

Vascular Tissue - Phloem

  • Transports sugars
  • Two types of cells: 
    1. Sieve tube elements - chain of cells
      • internally reduced, lack nucleus
    2. Companion cells - non-conducting cells
      • share nucleus